Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Visibility Laboratory Records, 1937-2003 (bulk 1944-1987) (SAC 38)

Restrictions: Original media recording formats are restricted. Viewing/listening copies are available for researchers.

Extent: 33.4 Linear feet (33 record cartons and 1 archives box)

Digital Content

Negative archive indices in Series 9 have been digitized, and are available through links in the container list.

The Visibility Laboratory conducted research in the fields of optics and underwater visibility. Funded primarily through U.S. government contracts, Laboratory researchers studied problems of camouflage, detection, atmospheric optics, and remote sensing of the Earth and oceans. The records document the administration and contract history of the Laboratory.

The Visibility Laboratory was founded in 1939 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Dr. Seibert Quimby Duntley and Dr. Arthur Hardy. Initially funded by the Works Progress Administration, the Laboratory focused on the problem of surface camouflage in the event of an aerial attack. As World War II continued, the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) broadened the Laboratory's scope of research, funding studies in target detection, the visibility of underwater objects, and the detection of downed pilots.

In 1948, on the recommendation of the National Research Council, the Visibility Laboratory received U.S. Navy support to conduct research on ocean visibility problems. This increased emphasis on oceanic research influenced the Laboratory's 1952 move from MIT to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), where it was housed at the Navy Electronics Laboratory in Point Loma, San Diego.

A successful move to SIO depended greatly on continued funding for staff and research projects while the Laboratory transitioned. Contracts were secured with the Bureau of Ships, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force. Once established at SIO, the Laboratory's research agenda expanded to include atmospheric optics, optical remote sensing, scientific instrumentation development, and digital image processing. This expansion was a result of the many major collaborations with international, federal, and private organizations.

At SIO, the Laboratory's research was structured in three teams: theoretical, electronic, and mechanical. These teams reported to an assistant director, who in turn reported to the director of the Visibility Laboratory. The director reported to the Vice Chancellor of Marine Sciences. The Visibility Laboratory flourished at SIO for 35 years, and was a nationally recognized expert in the field of visibility.

The Visibility Laboratory was disestablished on July 31, 1987. The size of its research staff had dwindled throughout the 1980s, and its offsite location in Point Loma had become a significant barrier to multidisciplinary research projects with SIO students and faculty. The Laboratory closed and the few remaining principal investigators transitioned to positions elsewhere at SIO, or became consultants, in order to continue their research. Major research projects underway in the late 1980s continued, in part, under Roswell Austin.


Seibert Q. Duntley: Duntley was the founding director of the Visibility Laboratory, and led the program from 1939 to 1975. Duntley established the Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), spearheaded its research throughout World War II, and guided its subsequent move to the Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) in 1952. Duntley resigned as Director of the Visibility Laboratory in 1975 and continued to teach and conduct research until 1977.

James L. Harris, Sr.: Harris succeeded Duntley as director of the Visibility Laboratory in 1975, and served until his resignation in 1979. An integral part of the Laboratory's research program, he conducted studies on the mathematical modeling of human vision and digital imagery.

Roswell Austin: Roswell Austin was director of the Visibility Laboratory from 1980 to 1987, after serving as Laboratory manager for decades. Austin faced downsizing problems as many of the Laboratory's academic staff left and no suitable replacements were found. His retirement coincided with the official disestablishment of the Visibility Laboratory on July 31, 1987, though he continued to actively consult and conduct research.

The Visibility Laboratory conducted research in the fields of optics and underwater visibility. Funded primarily through U.S. government contracts, Laboratory researchers studied problems of camouflage, detection, atmospheric optics, and remote sensing of the Earth and oceans. The records document the administration and contract history of the Laboratory, from its World War II beginnings at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology until its 1987 disestablishment after more than three decades at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.


Seibert Q. Duntley Papers. SMC 58. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego.

John E. Tyler Papers. SMC 168. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego.

Rudolph W. Preisendorfer Papers. SMC 159. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego.

Container List


Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) ADMINISTRATION: Administrative documents, including information about directors and staffing, moving the Lab from MIT to SIO, key memoranda, management meeting (AIM) minutes, research capability overviews, and policy documentation. It includes retrospective summaries, written by Vis Lab staff, about the Lab's mission, major projects, and scientific innovations.

Arranged chronologically within four subseries: A) Directors' Biographies and Staff, B) Capabilities and Research Areas, C) Memoranda and Policies, and D) Miscellaneous.

Directors and Staff

S. Q. Duntley

Box 1 Folder 1
Bio-bibliography forms, 1961-1974
Box 1 Folder 2
Director's notebook, 1949-1960
Box 1 Folder 3
Director's notebook, ca. 1957-1960

James L. Harris, Sr.

Box 1 Folder 4
Biographical - Resume, bibliography, career summary
Box 1 Folder 5
Harris resignation - All-hands meeting and memoranda, 1978 October-November

Roswell W. Austin

Box 1 Folder 6
High-altitude flight training certification, 1950
Box 1 Folder 7
SIO Calendar - Appointment of Austin as Vis Lab Assistant Research Engineer, 1953 April 6-11
Box 1 Folder 8
Bio-bibliography forms, 1954-1974
Box 1 Folder 9
Letters in support of promotion and career advancement, 1957, 1967
Box 1 Folder 10
Lab manager notebook, 1968
Box 1 Folder 11
Biographical, 1970-1985
Box 1 Folder 12
Director's notebook, 1979-1986

Entries on various projects, meetings, and schema.

Box 1 Folder 13
Bibliography, 1990
Box 1 Folder 14
Austin photographs, 1985
Box 1 Folder 15
Position profile - Vis Lab Director, 1976

Includes memo by Duntley to Walter Munk about history of Vis Lab with Air Force contracts and the importance of the selection of a new director.

Box 1 Folder 16
Staff bibliographies (Austin-Ensminger)

First part of binder. Includes keywords, bibliography of Vis Lab reports published in SIO Reference Series, and the following staff: Austin, Bailey, Baker, Duntley, Edwards, Ensminger.

Box 1 Folder 17
Staff bibliographies (Fitch-Wilson)

Second part of binder. Includes list of reports on the topic of remote sensing, and the following staff: Fitch, Gordon, Harris, Johnson, McGlamery, Mueller, Smith, Trees, Tyler, Wilson.

Box 1 Folder 18
Record of Laboratory employees

Capabilities and Research Areas

Box 1 Folder 19
Post-war research on visibility at MIT - Summary report, 1943-1945
Box 1 Folder 20
Aerial research program - Correspondence and memoranda, 1953
Box 1 Folder 21
Notes on the oceanographic program of the Visibility Laboratory - Prepared by Duntley for MPL Seminar, 1954 May 4
Box 1 Folder 22
Duntley, S. Q. and S. S. Ballard. A program of research in the visual detectability of distant objects, ca. 1955

Summary supported by research performed under NObsr-43356.

Box 1 Folder 23
Planning Program, 1955-1958

Includes detailed 1956 description of talks at BuShips Conference on Visibility and Concealment, and a memo by John H. Taylor summarizing vision research plans.

Box 1 Folder 24
Organizational charts, ca. 1955
Box 1 Folder 25
Optical Society tour of Vis Lab facilities, 1956

Includes outline of for demonstrations of special Vis Lab equipment and program summary notes.

Box 1 Folder 26
Summary and organizational charts, 1960
Box 1 Folder 27
Notes on organization and planning by R. Austin, 1960-1963
Box 1 Folder 28
Air Force briefing program, 1961
Box 1 Folder 29
Harris, James L. Visibility Center proposal, 1963 March 8
Box 1 Folder 30
Duntley, S. Q. Presentation at NEL on Visibility Laboratory capabilities, 1963 June 27
Box 1 Folder 31
Optics and image processing, 1964-1968
Box 1 Folder 32
History and mission of the Vis Lab, 1964-1983

Includes a summary of Navy cooperation.

Box 1 Folder 33
Tour and program summary notes by S. Q. Duntley, 1965

Includes brief outline of major government projects and contracts.

Box 1 Folder 34
Optics at UCSD - Summary, ca. 1967
Box 1 Folder 35
Duntley, S. Q. Underwater imagery - Memo to Nierenberg, 1968, 1976
Box 1 Folder 36
SIO annual report submissions, with photographs, 1970-1974
Box 1 Folder 37
Summary of research goals, capabilities and facilities - By J. L. Harris, in letter to Dept. of Transportation, 1971
Box 1 Folder 38
Organization summary and org chart, 1972-1974
Box 1 Folder 39
Statement of Policy, 1974
Box 1 Folder 40
Image Processing Facility, 1977
Box 1 Folder 41
History of Vis Lab computer acquisitions, 1978
Box 1 Folder 42
Organizational charts, project list, and facilities summary, 1980-1986
Box 1 Folder 43
Description of Vis Lab image processing system, 1982
Box 1 Folder 44
Research activities summary, 1982
Box 1 Folder 45
Capabilities for remotely sensing ocean optical properties - Summary, 1983 March
Box 1 Folder 46
Project summaries and program goals - Presentation slides, 1984-1985
Box 1 Folder 47
Submarine visibility/concealment efforts, 1984
Box 1 Folder 48
Visibility Laboratory: A Retrospective Look at its Contribution to Optical Oceanography and Other Tales - Presentation by R. W. Austin, 1988
Box 1 Folder 49
An Instrumental History of the Scripps Visibility Laboratory - Extended abstract by Kenneth J. Voss and Roswell Austin, ca. 1990

Memoranda and Policies

Box 1 Folder 50-52
Laboratory transition from MIT to University of California - Personnel, 1951-1952
Box 1 Folder 53
Laboratory transition from MIT to University of California - Org charts and budgets, 1952
Box 1 Folder 54
Director's memoranda no. 1-31 with subject index, 1955-1956
Box 1 Folder 55-56
Administrative memoranda, 1960-1984
Box 1 Folder 57
Report publication policies, 1962-1967
Box 1 Folder 58
Memo from Harris to Duntley and Austin re: Laboratory organization and operation, 1965 March 4
Box 1 Folder 59
Standard Practices Manual for safeguarding classified information, 1966
Box 1 Folder 60-70
Administrative Information Meetings (AIM) - Agendas and minutes, 1967, 1977-1986
Box 2 Folder 1
Contract and grant indices, 1971-1985
Box 2 Folder 2
Principal investigators - Memo and handbook, 1977
Box 2 Folder 3
Vis Lab move to SIO campus - Memoranda, 1977-1984

Includes summaries of Vis Lab's lack of interaction with other SIO research units, memo from Harris to Nierenberg, and reports by the SIO ad hoc Program Planning Committee.

Box 2 Folder 4
Space allocations - Sverdrup Hall, 1977-1984
Box 2 Folder 5
Space allocations - Naval Ocean Systems Center, 1977-1978
Box 2 Folder 6
Financial activity reports, 1978-1983
Box 2 Folder 7
Disestablishment of Vis Lab, 1987


Box 2 Folder 8
Press releases, 1968, 1972
Box 2 Folder 9-10
Student disorder and protest at UC San Diego re: government-funded research, 1969-1970

Campus controversy, focused on the Academic Senate, on student demands regarding classified research and Department of Defense-sponsored contracts. Includes: copies of resolutions and memoranda by William McGill; "The efficiency of a sit-in" by Henry G. Booker; and a 4-page memo by James L. Harris on government-funded research.

Box 2 Folder 11-12
Guest sign-in logs, 1963-1964, 1972-1980
Box 2 Folder 13
Aerospace Corporation - Military Spacecraft Committee meeting, 1977


Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) CORRESPONDENCE: Arranged in four parallel, complementary, chronological subseries based on the original order of transferred files. The subseries each include correspondence from many Vis Lab researchers, often in carbon copy. Arranged in four subseries: A) Outgoing Chronological Files; B) S. Q. Duntley Files, C) James L. Harris, Sr. Files, and D) Roswell Austin Files.

A) Outgoing Chronological Files: Blue carbon copies of outgoing correspondence created by all staff and researchers at Vis Lab, including directors and managers. Arranged in original chronological order.

B) S. Q. Duntley Files: Includes miscellaneous early correspondence, and Duntley's director correspondence files. The director's files include some incoming correspondence addressed to Duntley, but the bulk consists of outgoing carbon copies of letters written by Duntley and other Vis Lab researchers (especially John E. Tyler and Raymond Smith). Arranged in original chronological order, though some years have multiple files with overlapping dates. Extensive additional correspondence by Duntley may be found in relevant contract and project files, particularly for the Navy's ONR and Bureau of Ships.

C) James L. Harris, Sr. Files: Harris was manager of research at Vis Lab, and also served as director from 1976-1979. Like Austin and Duntley, he maintained his own professional correspondence files that include incoming letters, and carbon copies of his outgoing letters.

D) Roswell Austin Files: Austin was the Laboratory manager at Vis Lab until he became acting director in 1979 (and eventually, director). Material consists of Austin's professional correspondence files. Copies of letters and memos by Austin may also appear in Duntley's files.

Outgoing Chronological Files

Box 2 Folder 14-67
Outgoing chronological files, 1954-1959
Box 3 Folder 1-53
Outgoing chronological files, 1960-1969
Box 4 Folder 1-13
Outgoing chronological files, 1970-1975

S. Q. Duntley Files

Box 4 Folder 14-17
Duntley - Miscellaneous early correspondence, 1946-1950
Box 4 Folder 18-35
Duntley - Director's general correspondence, 1952-1963
Box 5 Folder 1-26
Duntley - Director's general correspondence, 1964-1972
Box 6 Folder 1-8
Duntley - Director's general correspondence, 1973-1976

James L. Harris, Sr. Files

Box 6 Folder 9-31
Harris - Correspondence, 1961-1979
Box 6 Folder 32
Harris - Correspondence re: San Diego Sheriff's Department and digital image processing, 1983

Roswell Austin Files

Box 6 Folder 33-40
Austin - Correspondence files, 1961-1968
Box 7 Folder 1-24
Austin - Correspondence files, 1969-1989

1978 folder includes memo from Nierenberg inviting Austin to a presentation on carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by Charles Keeling, Berger and Fred Fisher. Includes Austin's notes from the lecture.

Box 7 Folder 25
Austin - Correspondence files, 1992-1998, 2003


Scope and Content of Series

Series 3) CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: Documents various colloquia, conferences, meetings, program reviews, seminars, symposia, trainings, and workshops. Includes abstracts, correspondence and planning materials, papers presented by Vis Lab researchers, and proceedings summaries. Arranged chronologically.

Box 8 Folder 1
U.S. Navy. Office of Naval Research (ONR) - Committee on Human Resources, Research and Development Board - Panel on Human Engineering and Psychophysiology, 1951 May
Box 8 Folder 2
U.S. Navy. Symposium on Radar Refraction, Washington, D.C., 1956

Includes copy of Duntley's paper, "Micro-structure in the atmosphere as observed by optical methods from aircraft."

Box 8 Folder 3
U.S. Navy. Mine Defense Symposium, 1957
Box 8 Folder 4
Inter-Service Radiation Measuring Program (IRMP), 1958

Thermal Radiation Laboratory, Geophysics Research Directorate, Air Force Missile Test Center.

Box 8 Folder 5
Symposium on Military Applications in the Ultraviolet, Washington, D.C., 1960
Box 8 Folder 6
Pacific Science Association. Tenth Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, 1961
Box 8 Folder 7-9
Classified Symposium on Visual Search, San Diego, 1962

Sponsored by Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee. Co-hosted by NEL and Vis Lab. Planning materials and correspondence.

Box 8 Folder 10
Image Evaluation Symposium, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1963 April
Box 8 Folder 11
National Aerospace Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, 1963 May
Box 8 Folder 12
First Conference on Laser Technology, San Diego, 1963 November

Sponsored by the Department of Defense.

Box 8 Folder 13
NASA. Conference to study the feasibility of conducting oceanographic explorations from aircraft, manned orbital and lunar laboratories, Woods Hole, MA, 1964
Box 8 Folder 14
National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council - Mine Advisory Committee. Seminar on acoustic imaging and pulsed light, 1964
Box 8 Folder 15
National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Space Science Board Study in Exobiology, 1964
Box 8 Folder 16
Military Operations Research Symposium, Coronado, CA, 1964 October

Sponsored by ONR.

Box 8 Folder 17
U.S. Air Force. MOL astronaut training course on Light, Vision and Visibility, 1966
Box 8 Folder 18
Joint seminar on Visual Perception of Objects Under Circumstances Providing Impoverished Visual Cues (UFO Project), 1966
Box 8 Folder 19
Human Factors Colloquium. Notes on human factors aspect of real time night airborne reconnaissance displays, 1967 January 12
Box 8 Folder 20
Color of the Ocean Conference, Woods Hole, RI, 1969 July
Box 8 Folder 21
Joint meeting of the Space Sciences Laboratories of Berkeley and UCLA (Earth Resources Satellite Program), 1969 July
Box 8 Folder 22-24
NASA. Annual Earth Resources Program Reviews, 2nd-4th, 1969-1972

4th annual conference folder includes drafts of Austin's paper, "Surface truth measurements of optical properties of the waters in the Northern Gulf of California," with details of the Fresnel II cruise; and Duntley's "Detection of ocean chlorophyll from Earth orbit." Program Reviews are related to SPOC, the Ocean Color Program, and NASA's Earth Resources Survey (ERS) Program.

Box 8 Folder 25
20th Tuna Conference, Lake Arrowhead, 1969 October
Box 8 Folder 26
Marine Technology Society. Symposium on Work in the Sea, Los Angeles, 1969 December
Box 8 Folder 27
Atmospheric Optics Measurement Program, Project 698AJ, 1970
Box 8 Folder 28
Scientific Commission on Physical Oceanography of IAPSO. Symposium on Optical Aspects of Oceanography, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1972 June
Box 8 Folder 29
International Ocean Development Conference and Exhibition, Japan, 1972
Box 8 Folder 30
U.S. Navy. Underwater Applications and Optical Communications Working Group, 1972-1973

Includes material on ORICS review and ocean optical data sharing from the Naval Underseas Center.

Box 8 Folder 31
National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Committee on Remote Sensing Programs for Earth Resource Surveys (CORSPERS) panel, 1973-1974

Includes Duntley's paper prepared for an oceanography panel on marine resources and satellite data.

Box 8 Folder 32
DARPA Workshop on Underwater Optical Imaging Systems, San Diego, 1973
Box 8 Folder 33
EPA Symposium on monitoring quality of marine and estuarine waters, Seattle, WA, 1973

Includes photographs of event.

Box 8 Folder 34
NOAA National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center (NOIC) - Turbidity Workshop, Washington, D.C., 1974-1976

Includes objectives, schedules, analysis of proceedings, and correspondence.

Box 8 Folder 35
Ocean Optics Workshop, San Diego, 1977

Sponsored by ONR.

Box 8 Folder 36
SIO/NASA Seminar, La Jolla, 1977 October 7
Box 8 Folder 37
EPA Visibility Monitoring Workshop, Las Vegas, 1978
Box 8 Folder 38
Naval Oceans Systems Center. Blue/Green Optical Communications Program Review, San Diego, 1978 November
Box 8 Folder 39
Ocean Optics VII Classified Conference, Monterey, 1979
Box 8 Folder 40
U.S. Navy/DARPA Bioluminescence Workshop, San Diego, 1980
Box 8 Folder 41
AGARD Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium, Bavaria, 1983

Includes abstract of Austin's invited paper, "Passive remote sensing of ocean optical propagation parameters."

Box 8 Folder 42
Ocean Optics VII Classified Conference, Monterey, 1984

Includes abstracts of Austin's invited papers, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters" and "Marine snow bioluminescence and its effect on the optical properties of the sea."

Box 8 Folder 43
Marine Technology Society. Symposium on Ocean Color Observations, San Diego, 1985

Includes draft of Austin's prepared remarks and symposium materials.

Box 8 Folder 44
Workshop on University-Industry Cooperation in Ocean Technology, San Diego, 1986
Box 8 Folder 45
Optical Backscatter Meeting, NOSC San Diego, 1991 February 21


Scope and Content of Series

Series 4) ARMED FORCES-NRC VISION COMMITTEE: Comprised of representatives from the Air Force, Army, Navy, and the National Research Council (NRC), the Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee was charged with connecting members of the Armed Forces with civilian scientists working on problems related to vision. Working groups were established to focus on specific vision problems and to advise the military. S. Q. Duntley was first involved in the work of the committee as an associate member and was named a NRC representative in the 1960s. Materials include meeting minutes, reports, and records from Working Groups 6, 30, and 33.

Box 9 Folder 1-29
Minutes and proceedings, 1944-1954
Box 9 Folder 30
Membership lists, minutes and working group reports, 1963-1970, 1972

Includes materials from working groups 6 and 33.

Box 9 Folder 31
Working Group 30 - Ad hoc panel on Visibility problems of electro-optically guided missiles, 1968


Scope and Content of Series

Series 5) PROJECTS, PROPOSALS AND CONTRACTS: The Visibility Lab was almost entirely funded by contracts it procured with the federal government and research partners at other laboratories. This series contains Vis Lab's records of contract activity, including proposals, project descriptions, activity reports, and funding. Materials are arranged, where possible, by the primary contracting source, then chronologically, with major partners separated into distinct subseries. Some contracts evolved over many years with complex joint funding arrangements, for example between the Air Force and Navy, or NASA and NOAA. Materials are filed by the primary contact listed on the contract cover sheet and related correspondence, and reflect the Lab's original groupings of material.

Major contracts related to Vis Lab's work with NASA and other government partners on the remote sensing of ocean color using CZCS imagery from the Nimbus-7 satellite are found in Series 6) REMOTE SENSING OF OCEAN COLOR/CZCS, though complementary and related contracts may be included in Series 5.

Additional material that supported or was produced by contract assignments may also be found in Series 7) RESEARCH, WRITINGS AND PRESENTATIONS, as the Vis Lab did not consistently link research to a contract number, and maintained a separate library of written work product. Researchers should search the finding aid by keyword, contract number, and subject terms to discover relevant material about any given research topic.

Arranged chronologically within seven series: A) Air Force, B) Navy - Bureau of Ships, C) Navy - Office of Naval Research, D) Navy - Other, E) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), F) NASA - Project Gemini, and G) Other Contract Partners (A-Z).

Note on subseries F) Project Gemini: On May 15, 1963 NASA astronaut Gordon Cooper reported that he could see vehicles raising dust along the U.S.-Mexico border from his Mercury VII space capsule. Cooper's observation was disputed by some scientists. NASA contracted with the Visibility Laboratory to investigate and perform a Visual Acuity Experiment for Gemini flights 5 and 7 in 1965. Vis Lab scientists confirmed 84% probability that a trained pilot could correctly interpret dust patterns as vehicles and that Cooper's observation was consistent with border patrol vehicles operating that day in El Centro, California.

Air Force

Air Force Cambridge Research Center (AFCRC)

Box 10 Folder 1
AFCRC - Airplane programs correspondence - Patrick Air Force Base, 1953-1955, 1957

Correspondence related to activities at the Air Force Missile Test Center at Patrick AFB, including Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), ONR, and Bureau of Research.

Box 10 Folder 2-5
AFCRC - Florida atmospheric optics experiments, 1956-1957

Missile tracking and visibility experiments conducted at Eglin and Patrick air bases, and Cape San Blas. Research may have been co-sponsored by the Navy; topics include shimmer meter, missile meter, microwave refraction, and atmospheric boil.

Box 10 Folder 6
AFCRC - Florida atmospheric optics experiments - Shimmer meter analysis and patent, ca. 1957

Patent research supported by Nobs-72092.

Box 10 Folder 7-10
AFCRC - Airplane programs correspondence, 1956-1964

Includes correspondence from A. R. Boileau with the AFCRC and others about a variety of programs for airplane instrument design and development, such as the C-130 and B-29. Includes many references to joint contracts with other stakeholders.

Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL)

AFGL - Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties (AVIZ Project)

Box 10 Folder 11-19
AVIZ contract administration, 1969-1979

Includes correspondence, administrative memoranda, and contract activities reports. Contracts F19628-73-C-0013, F19628-76-C-0004. Includes references and reports on the OPAQUE project.

Box 10 Folder 20-26
AVIZ technical memoranda, 1970-1979
Box 10 Folder 27-30
Airborne measurements of atmospheric volume scattering coefficients in Northern Europe - Data, 1976
Box 11 Folder 1
AVIZ Project binder - Activity reports and memoranda, 1977-1979
Box 11 Folder 2
AFGL/LYT - Analysis of electro-optical imagery for the prediction of cloud-free paths of sight, 1984-1986

UCSD-3723-R3; Contract F19628-84-K-0047.

Box 11 Folder 3
AFGL - Study of weather impacts proposal, 1986

Air Force Office of Aerospace/Scientific Research (AFOSR)

Box 11 Folder 4
AFOSR - Contrast sensitivity of the central and peripheral visual fields of normal human observers, 1962


Box 11 Folder 5
AFOSR - Night-time optical sensors, 1966

Correspondence and informal proposal regarding modifications to C-130 sensors for Major James G. Steger.

Box 11 Folder 6
AFOSR - Image analysis by object simulation, 1983

Air Research and Development Command (ARDC)

Box 11 Folder 7
ARDC - Manhigh III Project, 1957-1958
Box 11 Folder 8
ARDC - Project cards on atmospheric optics, 1957, 1960

Air Force Strategic Air Command (SAC) Program

Box 11 Folder 9-10
SAC - Correspondence and memoranda, 1951-1959
Box 11 Folder 11
SAC - Preliminary studies of the visibility of B-36 aircraft during twilight, 1953
Box 11 Folder 12
SAC - Aircraft visibility studies, 1954-1957
Box 11 Folder 13
SAC - Field test notebooks, 1955-1957
Box 11 Folder 14
SAC - Search calculations and visual detection range data, 1958
Box 11 Folder 15
SAC - Research by Jacqueline Gordon on visual search, undated

The visual detection lobe in direct search (report draft); A visual search problem of the Strategic Air Command (prepared comments).

Air Force Systems Command (AFSC)

Box 11 Folder 16
AFSC/Aeronautical Systems Division - High altitude photographic data collection and evaluation program, 1961-1964

Joint project with the Air Force Reconnaissance Laboratory. Contract AF33(657)-7739.

AFSC - Project Shedlight, 1966-1970

Box 11 Folder 17-18
Shedlight correspondence, 1966-1969

Shedlight (Contract F19628-67-C-0181) was a program of investigation to obtain and evaluate experimental data on contrast attenuation in different atmospheric environments. It was originally funded through the Naval Ship Systems Command, then by the mid-1960s, the Air Force Systems Command. It also received Air Force support through the Cambridge Research Laboratories. Later memos reference AVIZ Project.

Box 11 Folder 19
Shedlight progress reports and summaries, 1967-1970
Box 11 Folder 20-23
Shedlight technical memoranda, 1966-1970
Box 11 Folder 24-27
Shedlight administrative memoranda, 1967-1970
Box 11 Folder 28
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - Contrast attenuation through the atmosphere, 1968


Box 11 Folder 29
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - To conduct a program to obtain and evaluate experimental data on and related to the optical properties of the atmosphere, in several spectral regions under both day and night illumination levels, 1969


Box 11 Folder 30
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - To conduct a quick response to obtain and evaluate experimental data related to the determination of detecting probabilities for low flying aircraft at night, 1970


Box 11 Folder 31
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - Atmospheric visibility studies, 1973-1978

UCSD-0554, -1144, -0020, -0282, -1608.

Box 11 Folder 32
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - Modifications for radiometer internal stray light control and reconfiguration of ground based nephelometer, 1977

UCSD-0855, Contract no. F 19628-76-C-0004.

Box 11 Folder 33
AFSC/Aerospace Medical Division - Computer model of ground-to-air target detection performance, 1977-1978

UCSD-0851, Contract no. RFP F33615-77-R-0525.

AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - Modeling the European atmospheric optical environment (AMOD), 1977-1981

Box 12 Folder 1
AMOD project binder, 1978-1979

Joint project with the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). Contract F19628-78-R-0160. Refers to the OPAQUE and AVIZ projects.

Box 12 Folder 2
AMOD project binder, 1980-1981
Box 12 Folder 3
AMOD administrative memoranda, 1977-1979
Box 12 Folder 4-7
AMOD technical memoranda, 1978-1981

Memoranda reference NATO conferences and OPAQUE data.

Box 12 Folder 8
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - Automatic assessment of localized surface visibilities (CDL-9) project binder, 1985-1987

UCSD-3723; Contract F19628-84-K-0047.

Box 12 Folder 9
AFSC/Electronic Systems Division - Automatic assessment of localized surface visibilities (CDL-9) technical notes, 1986-1987

Includes technical memoranda, research plan, and contract updates.

Box 12 Folder 10
Air Force Avionics Laboratory (AFAL/RWF) - New procedures for atmospheric transmittance determinations, 1980


Navy - Bureau of Ships

Box 12 Folder 11-17
BuShips contract correspondence, 1950-1953 June

Correspondence regarding research on visibility of submarines and submerged objects (relating to concurrent ONR contract research) and later, aircraft.

Box 12 Folder 18-19
BuShips contract correspondence, 1955 September-1965

Detailed correspondence and memoranda, primarily concerning NObs-72092 and its precursors.

Box 12 Folder 20
Patent ideas, ca. 1956-1966

Summary folder of patentable ideas compiled by Austin, Boileau, Cordoza, Duntley, Harris, Petzold, Taylor and others. Research was supported by BuShips contracts NObs-72092, -72512, -43356, -84075, -92058 and NOnr-2216(14).

Box 12 Folder 21-22
Monthly contract reports for BuShips contract NObs-72092, 1954-1961

These reports include updates and information on many projects supported by NObs-72092, including Project HOOK, Bullpup, water clarity, VTC, fog, and general visibility research. Additional files on these projects are available later in this subseries.

BuShips - Underwater photometer (Contract NObs-43356), 1950-1956, 1958

Box 13 Folder 1-7
Research notebooks, 1953-1955
Box 13 Folder 8
Log of harbor data, 1955
Box 13 Folder 9
Tyler, John E. - Radiance distribution notes and photographs, 1955
Box 13 Folder 10
Report on operations and notes, 1955
Box 13 Folder 11
El Capitan dam experiments, 1955
Box 13 Folder 12
Duntley, S. Q. et al. An underwater photometer - Summary report, 1955

Presented at the October meeting of the Optical Society of America in Pittsburg, PA.

Box 13 Folder 13
Illumination component meter - Patent materials, 1958

BuShips - Project HOOK (Contract NObs-72092), 1952-1959

Box 13 Folder 14-15
Correspondence and memoranda, 1952-1958

HOOK was an early iteration of contract NOBs-72092.

Box 13 Folder 16
Long-range photographs, 1956

Experiment involved taking photographs of aircraft east of LAX, from summit of Mt. Helix in San Diego county.

Box 13 Folder 17
Harris, James L. Solution of filter problems in the time domain - Project HOOK technical memorandum no. 4, 1957 May 23
Box 13 Folder 18
Project HOOK AN/AVS-1 field lens design and test - Report by Justin J. Rennilson, 1958

BuShips - Water clarity meter (Contract NObs-72092), 1954-1959

Box 13 Folder 19
Water clarity measurement/Inshore Survey Program, 1954-1959

Documentation of a joint program (sponsored under contract NObs-72092) of the Navy Hydrographic Office and BuShips for water clarity instrumentation (for inshore mine surveys) to be adapted for submarine installation.

Box 13 Folder 20
Water clarity meter: Operating and maintenance instructions - Report by Roswell Austin, 1959

Report by Roswell Austin.

Box 13 Folder 21
BuShips - Air-to-surface visibility studies (Project Bullpup) (Contract NS 714-100), 1954-1959

Joint project with the Bureau of Aeronautics, who were interested in research on target visibility for the close air support missile XADM-N-7.

Box 13 Folder 22
BuShips - Underwater flare project, 1954-1960
Box 13 Folder 23-24
BuShips - Visual Target Classifier (VTC) (Contract NObs-72092), 1958-1964

Monthly reports, correspondence and project binder. This contract evolved into NObs-84075, Task 8.

BuShips - Behavior of light in an environment of fog (Contract NObs-72092, Amendment 38), 1960-1964

Box 13 Folder 25
Miscellaneous papers, 1960-1964
Box 13 Folder 26
Monthly reports, 1960-1963
Box 13 Folder 27
Theodolite missile azimuth control
Box 13 Folder 28
Technical information, with photographs, 1960-1964
Box 13 Folder 29
Final report and drafts, 1964

BuShips - Visibility Research (Contract NObs-84075), 1960-1966

Box 13 Folder 30
Contract reports
Box 13 Folder 31
Contract amendments

Includes over 20 proposed UCSD contract amendments on a variety of research projects.

Box 13 Folder 32
Contract correspondence
Box 13 Folder 33-34
Searchlight visual sea searches (Task 1), 1960-1963

Search and rescue (SAR) operation research. Includes folder labelled "ASR field experiments" with data taken off Point Loma.

Box 13 Folder 35
Image restoration (Task 2), 1960-1965
Box 13 Folder 36-38
Ship wake recognition/Reconnaissance Satellite Program (Task 3), 1960-1966

Also referred to as Project 503. Includes references to Includes Nobs-3620. Includes correspondence, memos, and reports.

Box 14 Folder 1
Ship wake recognition/Reconnaissance Satellite Program (Task 3) - Project binder, 1960-1962
Box 14 Folder 2
Ship wake recognition/Reconnaissance Satellite Program (Task 3) - Summary report
Box 14 Folder 3
Ship wake recognition/Reconnaissance Satellite Program (Task 3) - Research photographs
Box 14 Folder 4
Rooftop data gathering station (Task 3), 1960-1963
Box 14 Folder 5
Task 3 modification - Astronaut/Gemini experiments on visual acuity, 1965-1966

Includes progress reports from NASA contract NAS-9-5095. See related materials in subseries on NASA - Project Gemini.

Box 14 Folder 6
C-130 instrumentation (Task 4), 1960-1965
Box 14 Folder 7
Optical problems relating to bathyscaph operations (Task 5), 1961

Related to an NEL project to develop instrumentation for the bathyscaph Trieste.

Box 14 Folder 8
Null Balance Transmissometer (Task 6), 1963-1966
Box 14 Folder 9
Aircraft visibility problems/C-130 (Task 7), 1960-1965
Box 14 Folder 10
Visual Target Classifier (VTC) (Task 8), 1960-1965

See related documentation on VTC program in contract Nobs 72092. Includes paper by R. Howarth, "Notes on a uniform field projector."

Box 14 Folder 11
Visibility calculations (Task 9), 1962-1966
Box 14 Folder 12
Colored tape discriminator (Task 10), 1963
Box 14 Folder 13
Coast Guard projects (Sweep Width / Sighting Data) - Search and rescue (SAR) operation research, 1962-1968
Box 14 Folder 14
BuShips - Measurement of sea state from non-glitter portions of meteorological satellite photographs, 1957, 1961-1966

Contract Nobs-86012.

Box 14 Folder 15
BuShips - Proposal for survey of visual capabilities in space, 1963

Includes technical dissertation, "A study of visual tasks in space flight."

Box 14 Folder 16
BuShips - Research of visibility problems (Contract NObs-92058), 1964-1966

Also referred to as Task 538. Includes work with NASA. Related to CVC (Computerized Visibility Calculators) or NASA/Allen project.

Box 14 Folder 17
BuShips - Research of visibility problems (Contract NObs-92058), 1965-1968
Box 14 Folder 18
BuShips - Research of visibility problems (Contract Nobs-90337), 1964-1966

Includes report, "Concepts related to coherence time."

Box 14 Folder 19
BuShips - Research of visibility problems (Contract NObs-95251), 1965-1969

Includes contract amendments related to Project Shedlight, training programs for astronauts, and updates on Task 538.

Box 14 Folder 20
BuShips - Research of visibility problems (Contract NObs-95251) - Project FAMOS, 1965-1967
Box 14 Folder 21
BuShips - Research of visibility problems (Contract NObs-95251) - Project LoLev, 1966-1972
Box 14 Folder 22
BuShips - Provisional instructions: Operation of submarine visibility equipment (Contract NObs-92058), 1966 July

Navy - Office of Naval Research

Box 14 Folder 23-27
ONR contract correspondence, 1947-1950
Box 14 Folder 28
Visibility of surface vessels from deeply submerged submarines, 1950 April 21

Contract N5ori-07831.

Box 14 Folder 29-31
Visibility studies at Diamond Island, 1951-1960

Contract nos. N5ori-07864 and BuShips Nobs 50378. Concerns joint research and experimental investigations begun at MIT by Duntley on visibility of submerged objects (submarines), especially including the Diamond Island field station. See also the Diamond Island files in the RESEARCH, WRITINGS AND PRESENTATIONS series.

Box 14 Folder 32
Proposed research program in target recognition, 1958
Box 14 Folder 33
Research on artificial underwater lighting, 1961

UCSD-943. Some research conducted at Diamond Island field station. Includes correspondence with BuShips and ONR on collimated beams of light underwater (underwater lasers).

Exploratory calculations of the radiance of waves due to a submerged body (wakes)/Radiance distribution studies at Diamond Island, 1961-1969

Box 15 Folder 1
Master contracts

Continuation of visibility studies on Diamond Island. Contract Nonr-2216(14). See also the Diamond Island files in the RESEARCH, WRITINGS AND PRESENTATIONS series.

Box 15 Folder 2

UCSD-1019, -1080, -1251, -1308, -1451 -1441, -144, -1486.

Box 15 Folder 3
Status reports and "Underwater Optics" final report

Final report structured as a letter to Frank Isakson.

Box 15 Folder 4-6
Correspondence, 1961-1968
Box 15 Folder 7
Proposal for optical laboratory tank, ca. 1967

Continuation of project NR 015-322. Includes photographs.

Box 15 Folder 8
Survey of locations for underwater laser study field station, 1967
Box 15 Folder 9
To measure in clear ocean water the distribution of irradiance produced by an underwater green laser on a surface perpendicular to the beam at off-axis angles up to 60 degrees and at lamp distances of 10 or more attenuation lengths, 1967

Continuation of project NR 015-322. UCSD-2051.

Box 15 Folder 10
Optical oceanography, 1969

UCSD-3285. Contract no. N00014-67-A-0109-0002.

Box 15 Folder 11
To measure the distribution of off-axis irradiance produced by a laser beam in the experimental tank located in Room 2215, Sverdrup Hall, in order to develop empirical and theoretical expressions describing the irradiance distribution and to determine the effects of receiver field of view, 1969

UCSD-3063. Related to U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory.

Box 15 Folder 12
Visibility determining equipment, 1970


Box 15 Folder 13
Optical Ocean Measurements Program, 1971


Box 15 Folder 14
(Unconventional) underwater imaging study, 1972-1973

Contract N00014-69-A-0200-6034. Includes proposal (UCSD-5419) first anniversary report.

Box 15 Folder 15
Optical oceanography in the Arctic, 1972-1973


CAT Project/Time Varying Intensity (TVI) systems of underwater laser scanners, 1972-1975

Box 15 Folder 16
ONR-34 Task I Time Varying Intensity (TVI) project binder, 1972-1974

Includes technical memorandum on unconventional underwater imagery.

Box 15 Folder 17
Austin, R. W. TV system design consideration notes, 1972
Box 15 Folder 18-19
CAT I and II notebooks - Raymond C. Smith, 1974
Box 15 Folder 20
CAT Project - Underwater battery unit explosion at NUC Oceanographic Research Tower, with photographs, 1974-1975
Box 15 Folder 21
CAT Project - NUC tower operations notes, 1974
Box 15 Folder 22
Suspended solids in the ocean - Proposal letter, 1973
Box 15 Folder 23
Studies of oceanographic processes affecting suspended particulate material in the ocean, 1973-1974


Box 15 Folder 24
Development and fabrication of a spectral transmissometer, 1976-1977


Box 15 Folder 25
Ocean optics research proposal and related correspondence, 1977-1979


Box 15 Folder 26
Analysis of the optical transient response of water, 1978
Box 15 Folder 27
Development of an underwater towed optical sensor system, 1978

UCSD-0984, -0984 R1.

Box 15 Folder 28
Measurement of the absorption coefficient of natural waters, 1979-1980


Box 15 Folder 29-30
ONR/DARPA - Marine bioluminescence studies, 1980-1981

UCSD-1911, contract N00014-80-C-0800. Involved design and installation of a subsurface field station over Scripps Canyon, connected to seashore laboratory by submarine cable.

Box 15 Folder 31
Environmental effects on optical propagation, 1980-1983


Box 15 Folder 32
Remote sensing of bioluminescence (RSBI) project binder, 1982-1983

UCSD-2910, contract N00014-80-C-0066.

Box 15 Folder 33
Analysis of laboratory and field measurements of natural marine bioluminescence, 1983

UCSD-2985, contract N00014-80-C-0440.

Box 15 Folder 34
Atmospheric effects upon visible and infrared image propagation, 1983


Box 15 Folder 35
Submarine remote sensor design study, 1983


Box 15 Folder 36
ONR Ad hoc Committee on Ocean Science from Space Shuttle, 1984-1986

Includes information on NASA's approval for the Navy to fly first oceanographer aboard the shuttle.

Box 15 Folder 37
Mesoscale oceanic phenomena, 1985-1986


Box 15 Folder 38
Investigation of the effects of light field perturbations on apparent optical properties, 1985-1987


Box 15 Folder 39
Spectral properties of ocean waters at the marginal ice zone, 1985-1987


Box 15 Folder 40
Application of Differential Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (DOAS) in phytoplankton absorption, 1986


Box 15 Folder 41
Arctic Accelerated Research Initiative, 1986
Box 15 Folder 42
Development of prototype portable aircraft ocean color remote sensing system, 1986-1987

UCSD-87-0013. Includes information Multispectral Aircraft Radiometer System (MARS).

Box 15 Folder 43
Optical and Physical Variability in NE Pacific Water Masses, 1986-1987


Box 15 Folder 44
Back scattering and point spread function measurements in sea ice, 1987


Navy - Other Departments

Naval Air Development Center (NADC)

Box 16 Folder 1
NADC/Anti-Submarine Warfare Lab - Nicard Project - Feasibility investigation for optical ranging and detection of submerged objects, 1962-1966

Originally AW-423. Technical document 224-840C4. Transferred to project NOr-480D-98. Includes memorandum on submarine visibility system data collection requirements.

Box 16 Folder 2
NADC - Underwater light propagation, 1965-1968

Contract N62269-3097, UCSD-1476.

Box 16 Folder 3
NADC - To measure light propagation properties in the ocean in conjunction with laser system evaluation (ORADS), 1970

UCSD-3406. Contract no. N62269-70-Q-0248.

Box 16 Folder 4
NADC - Transmissometer system, 1972

UCSD-4994. Contract no. N62269-72-R-0446.

Box 16 Folder 5
NADC - Light propagation properties in the ocean, 1973


Box 16 Folder 6
NADC - Optical oceanographic measurement support, 1976-1979

Contract no. N62269-76-M-2584. Measurements undertaken in support of the Optical Ranging, IFF, Communication Program (ORIC).

Box 16 Folder 7
NADC - Services to develop and fabricate an oceanographic irradiometer system, 1976-1977


Box 16 Folder 8
NADC - Compilation and analysis of coastal optical properties data/Optical oceanographic measurement support, 1978

UCSD-1047, -1249.

Box 16 Folder 9
NADC - Research, analysis and engineering support in optical oceanography, 1979-1980

UCSD-1863, Contract no. N62269-79-C-0318.

Box 16 Folder 10
NADC - Operation and maintenance manual for five channel radiometer, 1982

Technical memorandum E-001-82t. Contract N662269-79-C-0318.

Naval Electronics Laboratory (NEL)

Box 16 Folder 11
NEL - Visual detection and concealment section program summary, ca. 1955
Box 16 Folder 12
NEL - Chemiluminescence Project, 1954-1955
Box 16 Folder 13
NEL - Deep water scatter meter, 1962-1963
Box 16 Folder 14
NEL - Maritime visibility, 1973

Includes status report on cloud free lines of sight (CFLOS).

Box 16 Folder 15
NEL - Analysis of ocean optical property measurements, 1975
Box 16 Folder 16
NEL - Irradiance meter, 1975-1978
Box 16 Folder 17
Naval Medical Research Institute - Correspondence with Commander Norman Lee Barr, 1951-1952
Box 16 Folder 18
Naval Ocean Research Development Activity - Ocean optical transmission maps of the Gulf of Alaska and Northeastern Pacific, 1987-1989

Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC)

Box 16 Folder 19
NOSC - Non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare studies, 1977

Includes two project outlines: "Ocean optical Environment" and "Ocean surface observations."

Box 16 Folder 20
NOSC - Multispectral ocean data analysis, 1978


Box 16 Folder 21
NOSC - Optical surface truth measurements, 1978


Box 16 Folder 22
NOSC - Visibility of submerged objects, 1978

Contract N660001-78-C-0203. Also referred to as Studies of Observation of Submerged Objects (SOSO).

Box 16 Folder 23
NOSC - Calibration services on RSI underwater radiometers in support of the Ocean Color Program, 1978-1980

Contract N66001-80-M-7776.

Box 16 Folder 24
NOSC - E/O Cameras, 1981-1986

Includes technical memorandum by J. D. Bailey, "Design of a test facility for use in evaluation of the lopatch visible spectrum scanning system." Contract 66001-81-M-1808.

Box 16 Folder 25
NOSC - Environmental data and modeling support for SRS-85 field test, 1985
Box 16 Folder 26
NOSC - Radiometric Calibration Facility, 1985


Box 16 Folder 27
NOSC - Instrumentation for an Ice Optics Laboratory, with technical memoranda, 1985
Box 16 Folder 28
NOSC - Sea Ice Optical Sensor analysis and system design, 1986-1987

UCSD-86-1489, contract N66001-87-C-0102.

Box 16 Folder 29
NOSC - Satellite/Submarine Laser Communications (SLC) programs, 1986-1989

Includes: correspondence; SLC Provinces Working Group/J. W. Nolten technical memorandum, "c versus k survey" (JN-011-88); NOSC memorandum on SLC water database programs by Alan King. Research focus is the variability in the ratio of volume attenuation coefficient to diffuse attenuation coefficient versus optical depth.

NOSC - Submerged contrast: A program for computing underwater irradiance, radiance and contrast (Submerged Remote Sensing - SRS), 1986-1990

Box 16 Folder 30
Project binder

Includes "EN-" technical memoranda, program details.

Box 16 Folder 31
AUTEC data, 1986
Box 16 Folder 32
Petzold, T. J. Memoranda on irradiance reflectance of seawater, 1986-1987

Technical memoranda: EN-017-86t; TJP/RWA 86-04t-07t; 87-02t.

Box 16 Folder 33
SLC cruise data, 1988

Petzold SLC analysis binder, including technical memoranda, from USNS Lynch 1987 Station no. 1. References MER.

Box 16 Folder 34
Austin, R. W. Experimental evaluation of a method to determine the spectral diffuse attenuation properties of seawater and the attenuation of diffuse light for a vertical path from outside the atmosphere to a depth below the surface, 1990

Submitted as an SRS report to SAIC.

Box 16 Folder 35-38
NOSC - Natural Illumination Program (NIP)/Submerged Sensor Program - Contracts, memoranda and correspondence, 1988-1991

Contract N66001-86-D-002 (also referred to as "Project Skylight"). Statement of work references the SLC data collection program.

Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO)

Box 16 Folder 39
NOO - Water clarity survey system, 1967-1970

UCSD-2810, -2917. Contract no. N62306-69-C-0135.

Box 16 Folder 40
NOO - Correspondence, 1968-1971

NOO - Transmissometer/Illuminometer projects

Box 16 Folder 41
Transmissometer system project binder, 1971

Contract N62306-72-C-0011.

Box 16 Folder 42
Transmissometer/illuminometer instrument system (NAVOCEANO), 1976-1977

UCSD-0678, -1129.

Box 16 Folder 43
Development of combined transmissometer/illuminometer system, 1977-1979

UCSD-0844, -1409; Contract no. RFP N68463-77-R-0034.

Box 16 Folder 44
Task I: Modification of the transmissometer/illuminometer instrument system; Task II: Field training of personnel in the operation and maintenance of the transmissometer/illuminometer instrument system, 1978

UCSD-1129; Contract N68463-77-C-0034.

Box 16 Folder 45
Transmissometer project binder, 1985-1986

UCSD-3760; Contract N00024-82-C-6400.

Box 16 Folder 46
NOO - Backscatter meter, 1977

Includes technical memorandum EN-001-77.

Box 16 Folder 47
NOO - Water clarity system, 1977
Box 16 Folder 48
NOO - Bioluminescence photometer, 1978-1979

UCSD-1337. Includes technical memorandum ML-79-001t.

Naval Regional Plant Equipment Office (NRPEO)

Box 17 Folder 1
NRPEO - Sonar signal operations for improved ocean bottom feature extraction, 1972-1973

UCSD-5517. Includes technical memorandum UV-72-005t.

Box 17 Folder 2
NRPEO - Simulation studies of underwater imaging systems, 1972-1974

UCSD-5662. Contract N66857-73-C-0120.

Box 17 Folder 3
NRPEO - Water properties at tongue of the sea, 1973


Box 17 Folder 4
NRPEO - Studies of underwater imaging systems, 1973-1975

UCSD-6308, -0088.

Box 17 Folder 5
NRPEO - Experimental TVI system report, 1974

Contract N66314-74-C-8016.

Box 17 Folder 6
NRPEO - Synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) design parameters, 1975

Contract N66314-74-C-8008.

Box 17 Folder 7
NRPEO - Study of underwater imaging systems, 1975-1977

UCSD-0673 revised and -0355

Box 17 Folder 8
NRPEO - Supplement to synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) studies, 1976-1977

UCSD-0644 and -0465. Contract N66314-74-C-8008.

Box 17 Folder 9
NRPEO - Underwater imaging-system simulation and test and evaluation support, 1976-1977


Box 17 Folder 10
NRPEO - Nighttime visibility studies at sea, 1978
Box 17 Folder 11
NRPEO - Data analysis and instrument characterization services, 1986-1987


Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)

Box 17 Folder 12
NRL - Study of remote sensing of the ocean in the visible spectrum, 1972

UCSD-4951. Contract no. N00014-69-C-0200.

Box 17 Folder 13
NRL - Unconventional underwater imagery, 1972


Box 17 Folder 14
NRL - Ocean optical properties studies, 1974-1975


Box 17 Folder 15
NRL/CNOC - N-Ross II potential enhancements, 1985

Naval Ship Systems Command (NAVSHIPS)/Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)

NAVSHIPS - Submerged reflectance of submarines (SUBVIS) (Contract N00024-68-C-1100), 1965-1976

Box 17 Folder 16
SUBVIS correspondence, 1965-1968
Box 17 Folder 17
Submarine paint, 1966-1967
Box 17 Folder 18
Status updates and quarterly reports, 1966-1968
Box 17 Folder 19
SUBVIS contract maintenance, 1970-1973
Box 17 Folder 20
Submerged reflectance - Summary report by T. J. Petzold and R. W. Austin, 1976 August

Technical memorandum ML-76-008t.

Box 17 Folder 21-23
NAVSHIPS - Optical surveillance and optical countermeasures studies reports, 1967-1970
Box 17 Folder 24
NAVSEA - System for real time determinations of cloud-free fields of view, 1983-1984

UCSD-3033, -3566.

Naval Weapons Center (NWC)

Box 17 Folder 25
NWC - Tracer sighting ranges, 1953
Box 17 Folder 26
NWC - Computer simulation of television displays for aircraft identification, 1972


Box 17 Folder 27
NWC - Weather and visibility analysis, 1973-1974


Box 17 Folder 28
NWC - Availability and credibility of maritime visibility observations, 1974

Technical memorandum ML-74-004t. Contract N000123-74-C-0251.

Navy Engineering Logistics Office - Ocean Natural Resources Assessment (ONRA) Program (Contract N41756), 1982-1987

Box 17 Folder 29
ONRA proposals, 1982-1983

UCSD-2659, -2977. Contract N41756-82-C-2973.

Box 17 Folder 30
ONRA Project binder, 1983-1984

UCSD-3233; contracts N41756-83-C-2909 and N41756-83-C-2645.

Box 17 Folder 31
ONRA research plan (UCSD-86-1219), 1986
Box 17 Folder 32
ONRA correspondence and memoranda
Box 17 Folder 33
Monthly report samples
Box 17 Folder 34
Data, notes and documentation
Box 17 Folder 35
Environmental Data Collection System (EDCS) summaries, 1986
Box 17 Folder 36
ONRA 3 project binder, 1985
Box 18 Folder 1
ONRA 4 project binder (contract N41756-86-C-9900), 1985-1986
Box 18 Folder 2-3
ONRA 4 project binder, 1986-1987

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Box 18 Folder 4
Contrast sensitivity of the central and peripheral visual fields of normal human observers, 1964


NASA/Ames Research Center - Computerized visibility calculations (CVC/Allen Project), 1966-1972

Box 18 Folder 5
CVC proposals

UCSD-1817, -2417, -0229, -2417, -2844, -3345, -3520, -4074, -4481, -4735, -4759, -5742, -6945 under grants NGR-05-009-059 and NGR-05-009-192. For aircraft visibility research related to airborne collisions, and landing.

Box 18 Folder 6-7
CVC correspondence
Box 18 Folder 8
CVC reports
Box 18 Folder 9
Notes and photographs
Box 18 Folder 10
NASA/Electronic Research Center - Spectrometer construction and its field measurements of ocean waters, 1968


Box 18 Folder 11
NASA/Electronic Research Center - Parametric modelling studies, 1968
Box 18 Folder 12
NASA/Electronic Research Center - Study of atmospheric limitations imposed on the remote sensing from space of sea state and similar oceanographic parameters by visible and infrared radiation, 1968-1970

UCSD-2862. Contract no. NAS 12-2126.

Box 18 Folder 13
The green flash: A study of its mechanism, 1969


Box 18 Folder 14
Proposal to develop an effective water quality monitoring system, 1971


Box 18 Folder 15
Studies of visual aspects of aircraft operations, 1972

UCSD-4735. Contract no. NGR 05-009-192.

Box 18 Folder 16
Proposal for crop and plankton growth assessment, 1976
Box 18 Folder 17
Techniques for the observation and classification of ocean fronts, internal waves, sea surface swells, and whitecaps, 1976-1981


Box 18 Folder 18
NASA/Lewis Research Center - Measurement of optical properties for Great Lakes organic and inorganic species, 1978

UCSD-1174, -1211. Contract no. RFP 3-862583. Includes proposals for Lake Erie spectral radiance and irradiance study.

Box 18 Folder 19
Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the California Bight, 1979-1981

UCSD-1415, -1415 R1, -1709.

Box 18 Folder 20
NASA/Ocean Processes Branch - Photoecology, optical properties, and remote sensing of warm core rings, 1981-1982

UCSD-2359, -2081, contract NAG6-14.

Box 18 Folder 21
Determination of spatial and temporal variations in the optical properties of the Earth's atmosphere and their effects on remotely-sensed characteristics of surface-reflected light, 1982-1983


Box 18 Folder 22
NASA/Resource Observation Division - Effects of diffuse skylight on measurements of directional reflectance properties of natural surfaces, 1983-1984


Box 18 Folder 23
Investigation of the Northern Adriatic Sea: CZCS imagery and modeling, 1985-1986

UCSD-4148, grant NAG 5-587.

Box 18 Folder 24
Remote sensing of ocean color in the Arctic, 1987-1988


NASA - Project Gemini

Box 18 Folder 25
Correspondence, 1962-1968
Box 18 Folder 26-27
Experiment debriefing transcripts, 1963-1965

Mostly document Gemini 5; includes transcripts of conference hosted at Vis Lab as well.

Box 18 Folder 28
Photographs, ca. 1964-1967
Oversize FB-560 Folder 1
Astronaut portraits - Vision tester eye survey apparatus, undated

Small headshots of astronauts Cooper, COnrad, Armstrong, and See; photographs mounted on oversize board.

Box 18 Folder 29
Publicity, 1963-1965
Box 18 Folder 30
Contracts - Bureau of Ships (contract NObs-84075), 1963-1965

BuShips contract NObs-92058 was the sequel to NObs-84075. Includes correspondence.

Box 18 Folder 31
Contracts - NAVDOCKS (contract No. 67287) - Proposal for experiment in Laredo, Texas, 1965
Box 18 Folder 32
Contracts - NASA (contract 9-5095) and UCSD-1555, 1965
Box 18 Folder 33
Meetings - Visibility Laboratory meeting minutes, with photographs, 1963-1965
Box 18 Folder 34-35
Meetings - NASA Inflight Experimenters meeting minutes, 1963-1968

Includes meetings 1, 3-6, 8, 10, and 11.

Box 18 Folder 36
In-Flight Visual Acuity Experiment proposal and outline, 1963-1964
Box 18 Folder 37
Computer predictions of visibility by astronauts, ca. 1964
Box 18 Folder 38
Description of Gemini experiments: Flights GT-3 through GT-7, 1964 April 13

Booklet distributed by NASA's Office of Manned Space Flight.

Box 18 Folder 39
Quality Assurance Program memoranda, 1964 December 14
Box 19 Folder 1
Failure Analysis, Flight Safety Report, and Qualification Test Program, 1964-1965
Box 19 Folder 2
Experiment milestone schedules, 1964-1965
Box 19 Folder 3
Descriptive documentation for Experiment S-8/D-13, 1964-1965
Box 19 Folder 4
General Electric - Experiment proposal for GT-7, 1964-1965
Box 19 Folder 5
Experiment S-8/D-13 requirements, 1965
Box 19 Folder 6
Vision figures - Graphs and data sheets, 1965
Box 19 Folder 7
Procedures and milestones for Gemini - Pamphlet, 1965 January 21
Box 19 Folder 8
Test procedures and revisions, 1965 March-April
Box 19 Folder 9
Description of experiment and plans for S-8/D-13 for Gemini V and Gemini VII, 1965 May-June
Box 19 Folder 10
Experiment plan for Gemini In-Flight Human Otolith Function Experiment M-9, 1965 June 8

Conducted by John Billingham, Earl Miller, and Jerry Jones.

Box 19 Folder 11
Mission reports, 1965 August
Box 19 Folder 12-14
GT-5 flight plan, 1965 April-August
Box 19 Folder 15
Palm Beach County Commissioners experiment proposal for GT-7, 1965 September 13
Box 19 Folder 16
Mission Operation Plan drafts, 1964 October-1965 October
Box 19 Folder 17
Gemini VII preflight trajectory data, 1965 November 9
Box 19 Folder 18
Gemini VII flight plan, 1965 November 16
Box 19 Folder 19
Film and experimental data recovery plan, Gemini VI-VII, 1965 November 19
Box 19 Folder 20
Gemini V Experiment objectives and equipment - Post flight Interim Report, 1966 January 6
Box 19 Folder 21
Apollo helmet lighting study - Memo to Duntley, 1967 May 24
Box 19 Folder 22
United States Activities in Spacecraft Oceanography - Booklet by NASA and the Naval Oceanographic Office, 1967 October 1

Describes vision experiments conducted during Gemini flights.

Box 19 Folder 23
Gemini V and Gemini VII final reports, 1965-1968
Box 19 Folder 24-35
Inflight vision tester, 1964-1967

Correspondence, description and design specifications, technical memoranda, photographs, manual and reports.

Box 19 Folder 36-45
Inflight photometer, 1964-1966

Description and design specifications, procedures, reports, photographs and manual.

Ground Observation Sites

Box 19 Folder 46
Sun azimuth and zenith polar plots, ca. 1964
Box 19 Folder 47
Preliminary sighting data, 1964
Box 20 Folder 1-7
Laredo, Texas site data and images, 1964-1966
Box 20 Folder 8
Woodleigh, Australia site data, ca. 1964-1966
Box 20 Folder 9
Solar positions, 1965
Box 20 Folder 10
Ground reflectance data, 1965
Box 20 Folder 11
Yuma, Arizona site data, 1965
Box 20 Folder 12
Climatological Survey for Yuma, AZ and El Centro, CA, 1965 October 19