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Willard N. Bascom an engineer and scientist with some coral taken from a Pleistocene atoll called Alexa Bank during the Capricorn Expedition (1952-1953). This was the first Scripps Institution of Oceanography expedition to use scuba divers to explore the Pacific. Research ships Horizon and Spencer F. Baird mapped seamounts and guyots and other features of the Pacific seafloor. Scientists studied the 35,400 foot deep Tonga Trench, the second deepest place in the ocean, and measured heat flow on the East Pacific Rise. 1952.