Kevin Hardy Papers, 1952-2004 (SMC 81)

Restrictions: Original audiovisual recording formats are restricted. Listening/viewing copies may be available to researchers.

Extent: 6 Linear feet (15 archival boxes, 1 flat box folder, 5 map case folders), + .25 GB of digital files

Digital Content

The collection contains a small number of born-digital files, and many surrogates of original media recordings.

Papers of Kevin Hardy, development engineer at Scripps Institution of Oceanography from 1972 to 2011 and founder of Global Ocean Design LLC. He is known for the speed records of his human powered submersible SubDUDE and for his unmanned landers, which have reached the deepest parts of the ocean. The collection includes correspondence, planning materials for events and projects, photographs, and audiovisual recordings.

Kevin Richard Hardy was born in Buffalo, New York in 1953. He was hired as a development engineer at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1972 while studying engineering at San Diego State University. Hardy organized the World Submarine Invitational races while at SIO, which developed standardized timing methods for submarine races. He led the team which designed and built the submersible SubDUDE, which entered the Guinness Book of World Records in 1992 as the fastest human-powered non-propeller submersible. Hardy also organized the many events and projects associated with Scripps Institution of Oceanography's centennial year in 2003, including organizing the Oceans 2003 conference held in San Diego.

After retiring from SIO in 2011, Hardy founded Global Ocean Design LLC, which develops oceanographic instruments and deep ocean vehicles. In 2012, Hardy led the team which designed, built, and operated two unmanned landers used in James Cameron's Deepsea Challenge expedition. Both landers reached the deepest part of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, as well as many other deep-sea locations around the world. Hardy is also known for his educational outreach efforts, which include hands-on engineering projects for K-12 students and remotely operated vehicle competitions for high school and college students. He is a fellow of the Marine Technology Society and a member of the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (IHPVA) and the Deep Submersible Pilots Association.

Papers of Kevin Hardy, development engineer at Scripps Institution of Oceanography from 1972 to 2011 and founder of Global Ocean Design LLC. He is known for the speed records of his human powered submersible SubDUDE and for his unmanned landers, which have reached the deepest parts of the ocean. The collection includes correspondence, planning materials for events and projects, photographs, and audiovisual recordings. The bulk of the collection documents the development and racing of SubDUDE and a sequence of human-powered submersible racing events in the 1990s which Hardy helped to organize. Hardy was also the planning director for the SIO Centennial in 2003, and the collection includes his planning binders and calendars of events for the year-long celebration.


Container List


Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) SUBMARINES AND SUBMERSIBLES: Papers and photographs documenting the International Submarine Races held in 1991 and 1993, and the West Coast & World Submarine Invitationals held in 1994 and 1996. Hardy was an organizer and participant in these events. Lockheed Advanced Marine Systems donated the vessel Gossamer Albacore to SIO (it had participated in the 1st International Human Powered Submarine Races). Kevin Hardy and the Scripps Ocean Technology Forum Human Powered Submarine Team reduced it to a bare hull, and redesigned and reconstructed it to create the vessel SubDUDE. SubDUDE participated in several events, and went on to set a Guinness speed record. The series also includes reports, correspondence, manuals, ephemera, notes, and photographs concerning the submersibles Star III and SEAmobile, and reunion planning for Sealab II.

For audiovisual recordings of the SubDUDE project, see the last series in this collection.


2nd International Submarine Race, ca. 1991

Box 1
Background information; Race administration - Entry forms, contestant and operations manuals, etc.
Box 2 Folder 1
General information notebook
Box 2 Folder 2-5
SubDUDE notebooks
Box 2 Folder 6
Box 2 Folder 7
Entry form and presentation to the judges
Box 2 Folder 8
Team meeting notes
Box 2 Folder 9-11
SubDUDE publicity
Box 2 Folder 12
Funding and grants
Box 3 Folder 1-4
SubDUDE photographs and presentation illustration
Box 3 Folder 5-7
Design forms

3rd International Submarine Race, ca. 1993

Box 3 Folder 8-11
Race administration - Entry forms, contestant and operations manuals, etc.
Box 4
Design forms
Box 5 Folder 1-12
West Coast Submarine Invitational - Race administration: Planning, contestant lists, public relations, etc., 1994

World Submarine Invitational, 1996

Box 5 Folder 13-17
Planning binders
Box 6
Planning binders
Box 7 Folder 1-2
Event program and correspondence
Box 7 Folder 3-4
Public relations
Box 7 Folder 5
Box 7 Folder 6-10
Box 8 Folder 1-2
Box 8 Folder 3-12
Guinness World Records application, 1992-1996
Oversize FB-016 Folder 12
Guinness World Record certificate

Other Vessels and Events

Box 9
Star III - Certification, design report, operations manual, specifications, correspondence, and photographs, 1964-1970

Star III is a two-person submersible built by General Dynamics for the U.S. Navy for underwater research. It was donated to SIO in 1969 and eventually placed on display in front of the Birch Aquarium at Scripps.

Oversize Annex MC-028-02
Star III - Blueprints, 1967
Oversize Annex MC-028-03
Star III - Blueprints, 1967
Oversize Annex MC-028-04
Star III - Blueprints, 1967
Oversize Annex MC-028-05
Star III - Blueprints, 1967
Box 10 Folder 1-3
Ephemera - Brochures, specifications, price lists, and annual reports regarding submersibles and submarines, 1969-1990
Box 10 Folder 4
SEAmobile submersible, 1997

Brochures, photographs and correspondence regarding demo dives of the SEAmobile submersible by Hydrospace Corporation. Kevin Hardy was one of the participants.

Box 10 Folder 5
Return to SeaLab II - Reunion planning, 1991-2002

Includes photographs of LCDR Jeff Beaty, 2002, and SeaLab II; and article "SeaLab II Revisited" by Kevin Hardy, 1991.

Box 10 Folder 6-9
Southern California ROV Flyoffs, 2001-2003

Underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) competitions for high school and college students sponsored by the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE), the Marine Technology Society (MTS) and SIO. Includes instructions for building a soda cup submarine by Kevin Hardy.


Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) OCEANOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING: Kevin Hardy's notes and correspondence on engineering projects at SIO; correspondence and minutes for the Ocean Technology Forum; and manuals and catalogs for oceanographic equipment.

Box 11 Folder 1-3
Task lists, 1985-2000

Hardy's notes and correspondence regarding engineering projects at SIO, arranged chronologically.

Box 11 Folder 4
Sippican expendable bathythermograph system R-467A - Manual, 1967
Box 11 Folder 5
Sippican expendable bathythermograph system R-603D - Manual, 1975
Box 11 Folder 6
W. F. Sprengnether seismographic equipment - Catalog, 1974
Box 11 Folder 7
DeepSea Power & Light - Battery Whistler pressure test chambers, 2001
Box 11 Folder 8-9
Ocean Technology Forum, 1990-2000
Box 12 Folder 1-2
Ocean Technology Forum, 1990-2000

Includes "Practical High Pressure O-ring Seal Design Selected Seminar Notes," by Kevin Hardy, 1990.


Scope and Content of Series

Series 3) SIO CENTENNIAL: Kevin Hardy was the program director for SIO's Centennial Year, which was celebrated from September 2002 to December 2003. The project's mission was to "elevate awareness and appreciation of SIO and the science of oceanography" and "to foster interaction between SIO and partners in industry, government, academia, and the community." Includes planning materials, such as correspondence, reports, briefings, and public relations plans. Also includes files related to Centennial events and projects, such as the kick-off event at the Coronado Boathouse, the SIO Centennial Show, development of a walking tour of the campus with historical plaques, and an excavation of the old water tower site.


Box 12 Folder 3
SIO Centennial action
Box 12 Folder 4-5
SIO Centennial mission
Box 12 Folder 6
SIO Centennial calendar
Box 12 Folder 7-8
SIO Centennial Committee
Box 12 Folder 9
Development and External Relations
Box 13 Folder 1
Doug Bennett briefings
Box 13 Folder 2
Tom Collins briefings

Events and Projects

Box 13 Folder 3
"This month in Scripps history"
Oversize Annex MC-028-01
"This month in Scripps history" oversize posters and walking tour maps
Box 13 Folder 4
SIO Centennial show

Includes scripts, lyrics, sheet music and a photograph for the show.

Box 13 Folder 5-6
Coronado Boathouse

Includes talk transparencies and photograph.

Oversize FB-016 Folder 12
Coronado Boathouse - SIO centennial ribbon signed by Kevin Hardy and mayor Tom Smith, and SIO-themed flag
Box 13 Folder 7
San Diego County Fair - Scripps Ocean Exploration exhibit
Box 13 Folder 8
Project list
Box 13 Folder 9
Historical granite markers/monuments
Box 13 Folder 10
"Top 100" research milestone lists
Box 13 Folder 11
T-buildings - Photographs
Box 14 Folder 1
Historical timeline
Box 14 Folder 2
Scripps campus walking tour

Notes for the SIO walking tour. Includes "A Guide to 'Old Scripps Building'," "The Long History of T-16," and "The Ploughman."

Digital file 1
Scripps building markers - Digital files

Images and captions for descriptive plaques.

Box 14 Folder 3
Scripps building markers - Sample plaques
Box 14 Folder 4
Water Tower - History and excavation

Includes photographs of the excavation.


Scope and Content of Series

Series 4) OTHER EVENTS AND PROJECTS: Planning materials for events organized by Kevin Hardy, including the Oceans 2003 conference in San Diego; the Ancient Mariner's group at SIO; Eugene LaFond's memorial service; and lectures and talks.

Box 14 Folder 5
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 80th anniversary, 1983
Box 14 Folder 6
San Diego Regional Technology Alliance proposal, 1996-1997
Box 14 Folder 7
"Navy support for oceanography at SIO," by Deborah Day, 2000
Box 14 Folder 8
Ancient Mariners - Planning materials, 2000-2003
Digital file 2
Ancient Mariners at MarFac - Photographs, 2001 May 11

Photographs by Norm Sattler at Marine Facilities. Images include Kevin Hardy, Fred and Sally Spiess, George and Betty Shor, Robert Knox, Charlie Kennel, Tom Collins, and R/V Roger Revelle.

Box 14 Folder 9
LaFond memorial, 2003 January 13
Box 14 Folder 10
Wreck of the Loma - Talk outline, 2003


Box 14 Folder 11

Kevin Hardy was executive vice-chairman for the Oceans 2003 MTS/IEEE conference "Celebrating the Past, Teaming Toward the Future" held in San Diego from September 22-26, 2003.

Box 14 Folder 12
Charlie Kennel briefings
Box 14 Folder 13
Report and preview summary
Digital file 3
SIO Centennial booth exhibit photograph


Scope and Content of Series

Series 5) AUDIOVISUAL FILES: Video tapes of submersibles and submersible racing, including SubDUDE and Sub-Human II, and Guinness World Record attempts. Includes a KPBS radio news report on the SIO "instrument graveyard" of oceanographic equipment off the San Diego coast; and a sound recording of a talk by Kevin Hardy on SIO history.

Box 15 Folder 1
Sub-Human II (VHS), 1991

National media coverage on the Sub-Human II races.

Box 15 Folder 2
Scientific American "Frontiers" program: '91 Sub Race (VHS), 1991 October 23

Rough footage sent by Ocean Tech. Systems who created video recording - letter enclosed with tape. Several segments on oceans, including human powered subs and sea turtles.

Box 15 Folder 3
Raw footage of Human Powered Submarine races (VHS), 1991
Box 15 Folder 4
SubDUDE going for Guinness record (VHS), 1992 August 21

KUSI news report regarding the SubDUDE, a human powered submarine.

Box 15 Folder 5
Guinness record attempts - SubDUDE and Sub-Human II (VHS), 1992 August 21 and October 24

Guinness record attempt on August 21, 1992 by the non-propeller driven Subdue and the propeller-driven Sub-Human II human powered submarines. Successful Guinness Record run on October 24, 1992 by propeller-driven Sub-Human II human powered submarine. Both were built by the Scripps Ocean Technology Forum Human Powered Submarine Team organized by Kevin Hardy.

Box 15 Folder 6
Sub human power (Video8 cassette), 1992

30-minutes haul and 30 minutes tests of the human powered submarine SubDUDE.

Box 15 Folder 7
SubDUDE - Source files (Video8 cassette), 1992

Raw footage taken for a San Diego, Channel 10 news report about the human powered submarine SubDUDE.

Box 15 Folder 8
Wanda Levine reports for CSM on the sub races (audiocassette), 1994 March 28
Box 15 Folder 9
KPBS Radio report - Hardy's underwater camera used on the "instrument graveyard" (audiocassette), 2004 April 15

Describes lost acoustical equipment about 70 miles off the San Diego coast, and the underwater camera created by Kevin Hardy and Bill Heggy of SIO to film it. Starts at 2:00 minutes.

Box 15 Folder 10
"Scripps and the War Years," history talk by Kevin Hardy, Sumner Auditorium (audiocassette), 2004 July 27
Box 15 Folder 11
Always an Adventure: SubHuman (VHS)
Box 15 Folder 12
The Submariners, UCSD TV (VHS)