Armed Revolutionary Organizations in Mexico documents, 1965-1998 (MSS 0523)

Extent: 0.2 Linear feet (9 microfilm reels and 3 folders in one document box)

View OnlineThis collection has been digitized.

A microfilm collection comprised of printed and manuscript materials created between 1965 and 1998 by twenty-two separate revolutionary groups in Mexico. The collection presents a wealth of primary material documenting the organization and activities of these twenty-two groups. It is particularly strong in ephemeral communiques and periodicals dating from the 1970s and 1980s. The microfilm was generated from a privately owned collection. A small but significant part of the collection is made up of preservation copies made by the Centro de Investigaciones Historicas de los Movimientos Armadas (Mexico, D.F.) However, a great portion of the printed materials are low quality photocopies, stencils, or mimeographs, which may make some frames on the microfilm more difficult to read. Each roll of microfilm corresponds to a box in the container list.

Nine rolls of 35 mm microfilm containing documents and publications created between 1965 and 1998 by 22 armed revolutionary organizations in Mexico. All of the groups represented in the collection espoused a militarized brand of Marxism and advocated clandestine and guerrilla operations against the Mexican government and North American corporations. Several of the groups aimed at uniting the urban working classes with student groups and indigenous peoples.

Each roll of microfilm corresponds to a box in the container list. Each folder description contains the frame count for the folder, but the frame count does not necessarily reflect the document count since some documents are small and photographed two to a frame.

The collection contains a copious amount of material relating to student groups, specifically the Comite Comunista Estudiantil and Frente Estudiantil Revolucionario. Several documents issued by the Liga Comunista Espartaco within days of the Tlatelolco massacre of 1968 reflect Mexico's involvement in the radical student movement of the period. The student periodical 13 de Junio issued in the 1980s by the CCE documents the continuing efforts of radical student organizations in Mexico.

In addition to the student periodicals, the collection includes runs of several other underground revolutionary newsletters. Among these is an extensive run of the Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre's magazine Madera (1970s-1980s). Other periodicals represented include PROCUP's Proletario, EPR's Editorial del Pueblo and the LCE's Militar.

The few books in the collection tend to focus on military tactics, especially weapons and explosive use, guerrilla warfare, and the like. There is also a manual on emergency medical techniques for use in the field.

Series 1: Asociacion Civica Guerrerense (ACG)

Founded in 1959, the ACG marks the beginning of the modern guerrilla movement in Mexico. Active through the mid-1960s, the ACG focused its activities in the Costa Chica, Costa Grande and Tierra Caliente regions of the state. Much of the group's program was aimed against the Abarca-Mirandista administration in the state and the PRI in general. Genaro Vazquez Rojas was a leader of the ACG. The group carried out a number of political kidnappings.

Series 2: Asociacion Civica Nacional Revolucionaria (ACNR)

The ACNR, founded in the 1960s by Genaro Vazquez Rojas, resulted from a fusion of several earlier groups, including the ACG. The group set forth a plan for a national revolutionary party to be led by a five-member Comando Central Nacional. Several of the documents contained in the collection relate to the ACNR's efforts toward the release of Vazquez during his imprisonment in the Carcel Municipal of Iguala Guerrero.

Series 3: Comandos Armados del Pueblo (CAP)

Founded in 1971 by two intellectuals, Jeronimo Martinez Diaz and Roque Reyes Garcia, who believed the solutions to Mexico's social and economic problems lay with armed revolution. The group probably developed as a direct consequence of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre.

Series 4: Comite Comunista Estudiantil (CCE)

A radical student group active through most of the 1980s. The material, mostly issues of the newsletter "13 de Junio," focuses on clandestine operations and practical directions relating to gun use and military tactics. Also included are reports on revolutionary efforts throughout the world.

Series 5: Consejo de Autodefensa del Pueblo--Guerrero (CAPGR)

The CAPGR focused its efforts in Guerrero and was especially critical of the Abarca-Mirandista administration in that state. The CAPGR collaborated with other groups in Guerrero, such as the Central Campesina Independiente, in dealing with problems affecting capesinos in the state. Active during the mid- to late 1960s.

Series 6: Ejercito Indigena Revolucionario Liberacion Nacional (EIRLN)

The collection contains a single item relating to the EIRLN, a copy of a fax issued from "the mountains" of Oaxaca, dated April 1998.

Series 7: Ejercito Popular Revolucionario (EPR)

Active in the 1990s, the EPR, through its political arm, the Partido Democratico Popular Revolutionario (PDPR), called for reorganization of government, including a new constitution based on the needs of the Mexican people, and a better organized economy. Included in the collection is a manifesto of the EPR in an issue of El Insurgente, reflecting the group's status as an armed insurgent organization. A manual of basic military tactics issued for EPR use is also in the collection.

Series 8: Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional (EZLN)

The EZLN is the most recent of the groups represented in this collection. Its charismatic spokesperson Subcommander Marcos was greatly influenced by earlier organizations such as the LC23S (particularly through Arturo Gamez), and the guerrilla leader Lucio Cabanas. In spite of world attention and a national agenda, the EZLN's primary focus has been on the issues affecting the poor of Chiapas, e.g. land reform, education, and true political representation. Unlike some of the early revolutionary groups based in Mexico City, the EZLN downplays ideological links to Marxist-Leninism, preferring to emphasize its historical roots in the Chiapas region. The group changed its name to Frente Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional (FZLN).

Series 9: Federacion de Estudiantes Universitarios de Sinaloa (FEUS)

This student group was important as a vehicle for the activities of the "enfermos de Sinaloa," a student based movement with origins in the transformation of the Sinaloan economy from a largely rural based community of small farmers to one dominated by new industries and agribusiness. This change occured in the mid-1960s through the 1970s, within an atmosphere of student strikes and general unrest at the University Autonoma Sinaloa (UAS).

Series 10: Frente Estudiantil Revolucionario (FER)

The efforts of this group seem to have been focused in Guadalajara. Hostilities between government and FER forces on 24 December 1973 in Guadalajara resulted in the death of leader Pedro Orozco Guzman. The FER was allied with the Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre.

Series 11: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias (FAR)

The FAR was founded on a straightforward Marxist platform and was active in the mid 1970s.

Series 12:Fuerzas de Liberacion Nacional (FLN)

The collection contains two minor items for this armed guerrilla group. One is a special extract of General A. Bayo's work on military tactics compiled especially for the FLN.

Series 13: Fuerzas Revolucionarias Armadas del Pueblo (FRAP)

This organization was active through the 1970s. The FRAP conducted several armed bank robberies in the state of Chihuahua in January 1972. In 1973 FRAP members kidnapped the American consul at Guadalajara, Terrance Leon Hardy, in order to secure the release of thirty political prisoners.

Series 14: Guerra Popular (GPG)

The GPG was active in the 1960s. It was greatly influenced by the writings and actions of Arturo Gamiz, a revolutionary leader killed in 1965 during an attack on a military barracks in Chihuahua.

Series 15: Liga Comunista Espartaco (LCE)

Active in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the LCE was vocal in the wake of the Tlatelolco massacre of student protesters. The LCE issued a periodical titled Militante which identifies the group's roots in student protests of the early 1960s and earlier Marxist workers organizations.

Series 16: Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre (LC23S)

Founded by Ignacio Arturo Salas Obregon, this Marxist-Lenist group is named for the September 1965 attack on the Madera barracks in Chihuahua led by revolutionary leader and ex-school teacher Arturo Gamiz. The LC23S was primarily an urban movement. The group produced a periodical, Madera, throughout the 1970s and early 1980s. The collection includes extensive holdings of LC23S publications.

Series 17: Movimiento de Accion Revolucionaria (MAR)

This group was founded by a veteran of the LC23S, Manuel Gomez Garcia. The MAR (along with other groups such as FRAP, FAR and LC23S), had its origins in the response to the government repression of the student movement of 1968. Active during the late 1970s and early 1980s.

Series 18: Movimiento Popular Revolucionario (MPR)

The MPR set forth a five-point plan for a "Revolucion de Nueva Democracia" in Mexico, including confiscation of "imperialist" property, land redistribution, equality and independence for native peoples, and equality for women. Represented by a single item in the collection issued after 1992.

Series 19: Partido de los Pobres (PDLP)

The PDLP was primarily a rural movement based in the state of Guerrero. This group maintained a policy of respect for all religious traditions. Founded by Profesor Lucio Cabanas Barrientos in 1967 and active through the 1970s.

Series 20: Partido Proletario Unido de America (PPUA)

Though based in Mexico, the PPUA represents an effort at a pan American revolutionary movement. The collection includes a single document from the PPUA, issued after 1976.

Series 21: Partido Revolucionario Obrero Clandestino Union del Pueblo (PROCUP)

The PROCUP, active through the 1980s and 1990s, was closely allied with the PDLP. The collection includes extensive holdings of PROCUP publications, including many issues of the newsletter Proletario.

Series 22: PROCESOS

Various articles on the revolutionary process in Mexico.

Series 23: Vanguardia Armada del Pueblo (VAP)

The collection includes a single item from the VAP, a book dated 1976 on the origins of socialism and capitalism, the strategy of the armed revolutionary movement in Mexico, etc.

Container List

Asociacion Civica Guerrerense (ACG)

Box 1 Folder 1

Undated. Typescript. Announces support of a strike of physicians in Guerrero. (0002-0003)

Box 1 Folder 2

Undated. Critical of local government in Guerrero, especially Abarca and PRI politicians in general. (0005-0009)

Box 1 Folder 3

November. 9. Typescript. Bottom of leaf is ragged and unreadable in places. Press release calling on the people of Guerrero to throw out the PRI government in the upcoming elections. (0011-0013)

Box 1 Folder 4

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Points to the inequalities dividing the population of Guerrero, focusing on the exploitation of campesinos by large landowners and politicians. (0015-0017)

Box 1 Folder 5

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Concerns police repression of the ACG, economic inequality among Mexicans, and exploitation of the poor by the government and large industries. (0019-0026)

Box 1 Folder 6

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript, with corrections. Relates to repression of the ACG at the hands of the police and the government. Critical of the revolution of 1910, which is described as having been for the benefit of the rich capitalists. Includes economic statistics to demonstrate inequality in the country. (0028-0038)

Asociacion Civica Nacional Revolucionaria (ACNR)

Box 1 Folder 7

June. Annotated in red ink. Refers to increased militarization of southern states in Mexico, principally in Michoacan, Morelos, Puebla and Oaxaca, and calls for renewed collaboration of intellectuals. (0041-0043)

Box 1 Folder 8

March. Incomplete. Response to article published in the magazine Siempre (26 Feb. 1969), and general critique of current government of Mexico. (0045-0046)

Box 1 Folder 9

Undated. Mimeograph sheet. Rules of conduct based on the principles of class conflict, democratic centralism, selectivity and secrecy. (0048-0050)

Box 1 Folder 10

August 10. Photocopy. Rallying students against the administration of Diaz Ordaz, calls for an armed revolutionary movement against the government. (0052-0054)

Box 1 Folder 11

February 5. Photocopy of 30 p. essay. After an analysis of current political groups in Mexico, sets forth a plan of organization for a popular revolutionary party to be led by a five-member Comando Central Nacional. (0056-0071)

Box 1 Folder 12

November. 2 onion skin pages. Legal complaint regarding the imprisonment of Genaro Vazquez Rojas in the Carcel Municipal of Iguala Guerrero. (0073-0075)

Box 1 Folder 13

Undated. Declaration of principles and strategic outline of the ACNR. (0077-0090)

Box 1 Folder 14

April 25. Typed letter with list of names in manuscript. Petition addressed to the Judge of the District of Acapulco calling for justice in the case of Genaro Vazquez Rojas. (0092-0095)

Box 1 Folder 15

February. Typed statement, signed. Critical of the government of Guerrero, calling on the population to support the Asociacion Civica Guerrerense. Call for the release of Genaro Vazquez Rojas. (0097-0099)

Box 1 Folder 16

Undated. Typescript with signatures. Press release from the Union de Productores Independientes de Cafe. (0101-0102)

Box 1 Folder 17

Undated. Sets forth principles and general outline of ACNR. (0104-0111)

Box 1 Folder 18

October 26. Typescript with signatures. Critical of the government of Raymundo Abarca. (0113-0114)

Comandos Armados del Pueblo (CAP)

Box 1 Folder 19

December 31. Partial carbon copy of typescript. Top of first page is missing, as is page or pages after anexo no. 2. History and background of the armed revolutionary movement in wake of 1968 Tlatelolco massacre. (0118-0145)

Box 1 Folder 20

Julio. Carbon copy of typescript. A Marxist analysis of University organization and governing structure. (0147-0151)

Comite Comunista Estudiantil (CCE)

Box 1 Folder 21

May 17. Mimeograph. Overview of May Day activities, principles of the CCE, also CCE associations with other revolutionary groups. (0154-0159)

Box 1 Folder 22

June 13. Pamphlet. Detailed illustrated manual of military tactics for use of revolutionary groups in confrontations with police or armed forces. (0161-0187)

Box 1 Folder 23

June 10. Newsletter. Collection of articles relating to confrontations between Mexican revolutionary groups and military, including a supplement to June 1981 issue of Madera. (0189-0198)

Box 1 Folder 24

December. Newsletter. Collection of articles and notices relating to activities of the CCE. (0200-0207)

Box 1 Folder 25

May. Newsletter, No. 6. Notices on recent activities of the CCE. (0209-0222)

Box 1 Folder 26

May. Newsletter, no. 7. Directions on use of handguns. (0224-0233)

Box 1 Folder 27

May. No. 8 Newsletter. First aid for gunshot and knife wounds. Strategies of the CCE. (0235-0244)

Box 1 Folder 28

May. No. 9 Newsletter. Notes on the "new" revolution in Mexico. Further directions on the use of handguns. Microfilm lack one page. Complete photocopy also available in the collection (in folder marked 1.28) (0246-0254)

Box 1 Folder 29

June. No. 10 Newsletter. New plan for the newsletter, tactics for the CCE, guidelines for armed revolutionaries. (0256-0269)

Box 1 Folder 30

August. No. 11 Newsletter. Article on political situation in Peru. Also clandestine organization. (0271-0299)

Box 1 Folder 31

December. No. 13 Newsletter. Political philosophy of the revolutionary movement. (0301-0323)

Box 1 Folder 32

May. No. 16. Newsletter. Various articles on Marxist-Leninist philosophy, May Day around the world, focus on situation in Mexico. (0325-0337)

Box 1 Folder 33

August. No. 16. Newsletter. Brief notes on student movement. (0339-0343)

Box 1 Folder 34

May. No. 17. Newsletter. Various articles on student revolutionary movement. (0345-0352)

Box 1 Folder 35

January. No. 18. Newsletter. Reflections on recent earthquake and criticism of government response to same. Article on President Reagan. Also military tactics. (0354-0369)

Box 1 Folder 36

April. No. 19, Newsletter. Articles on world oil market, Haiti, Libya, others. Political cartoons. (0371-0380)

Box 1 Folder 37

July. No. 20, Newsletter. Notes on revolutionaries killed. Articles on Mexican external debt and other economic issues. (0382-0397)

Box 1 Folder 38

November. No. 21, Newsletter. Articles on economic issues, military tactics, and a story, "El auto de Juan." Microfilm copy lacks pages 18 and 19. Complete photocopy also available (in folder marked 1.38). (0399-0410)

Box 1 Folder 39

January. No. 21, Newsletter. Brief notices of student movement. (0412-0415)

Box 1 Folder 40

September. No. 12, Photocopy of Newsletter. Special edition. History of the Liga Comunista, priciples of revolutionary groups, fallen revolutionaries, editorials, political cartoons, and bibliography. (0417-0471)

Consejo de Autodefensa del Pueblo--Guerrero (CAPGR)

Box 1 Folder 41

May 30. Carbon copy of typescript, signed. Protests the actions of judicial police in the town of Atoyac de Alvarez and the imprisonment of Genaro Vazquez Rojas. (0474-0475)

Box 1 Folder 42

Autograph draft of statement. Protests the attempted assassination of Genaro Vazquez Rojas. (0476-0480)

Box 1 Folder 43

Autograph document. Critical of repression of the CAPGR at the hands of the Abarca-Mirandista government. (0482-0485)

Box 1 Folder 44

Undated. Carbon copy of incomplete typescript (page 3 and thereafter are missing). Explains the public protest of the CAPGR stemming from police actions in the town of Atoyac, and the repression of protests at the hands of the Abarca-Mirandista government. (0487-0489)

Box 1 Folder 45

Carbon copy of incomplete typescript, with second leaf inscribed with names and titles. Announces a joint meeting of the Liga Agraria Revolucionaria with the Central Campesina Independiente to deal with issues affecting campesinos in Guerrero. (0491-0493)

Box 1 Folder 46

No year, May 15. Broadside. Protests the government in Iguala, especially that of Abarca-Mirandista, points to the exploitation of campesinos and unemployment. (0495-0496)

Box 1 Folder 47

July 23. Broadside. Prints the four "acuerdos" resulting from General Assembly of the CAPGR. (0498-0499)

Box 1 Folder 48

Undated. Typescript. Public protest of the government of Raymundo Abarca in Atoyac. (0501-0504)

Box 1 Folder 49

Undated. Typescript. Press release announcing the CAPGR's protest of the Diaz Ordaz administration's repression of student groups in Mexico City. (0506-0507)

Box 1 Folder 50

September 20. Mimeograph copy of typescript. Petition to the Camara de Diputados by representatives of several towns and cities in Guerrero relating to economic and social problems in the state and the ineptitude of the Abarca government. (0509-0515)

Box 1 Folder 51

July 17. Typescript, signed by numerous leaders of CAPGR groups. Letter to President Diaz Ordaz petitioning the government to remove Raymundo Abarca from power in Guerrero for abuse of power. (0517-0522)

Box 1 Folder 52

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript with 2 page holograph draft. Praise from the CAPGR for a recent article published in the magazine Sucesos. (0524-0527)

Box 2 Folder 1

Undated. Broadside. The Union Libre de Asociaciones Copreras calls on workers in Guerrero to unite in their efforts against the "caciques." (0001-0002)

Box 2 Folder 2

July 4. Carbon copy of typescript. Declaration by an alliance of two campesino groups from Guerrero. (0004-0006)

Box 2 Folder 3

July 15. Broadside. Calls on all workers and small landowners to unite against the government of Abarca. Points to the corruption in Acapulco, unemployment and generally poor living conditions of workers. (0008-0009)

Box 2 Folder 4

November 9. Two holograph drafts of statement, one on letterhead. Announces the arrest of Genaro Vazquez Rojas in Mexico City and asks for intervention to prevent his execution. (0011-0014)

Box 2 Folder 5

Undated. Broadside, with holograph note on verso. The Comite Coprero del Bejuco sets forth its five primary objectives. (0016-0018)

Box 2 Folder 6

Undated. Broadside. An informational circular. (0020-0021)

Box 2 Folder 7

Undated. Holograph document. Concerns the exploitation of independent coconut growers and workers by the goverment and industry. (0023-0028)

Box 2 Folder 8

Undated. Annotated carbon copy of typescript. Agenda for convocation of the Liga Agraria Revolucionaria del Sur Emiliano Zapata. (0030-0032)

Box 2 Folder 9

Undated. Typescript. The Union Libre de Asociaciones Copreras rails against upcoming elections described as being controlled by the state government and the Rios family. (0034-0035)

Ejercito Indigena Revolucionario Liberacion Nacional (EIRLN)

Box 2 Folder 10

April 27. Fax. Notice addressed to the state and federal authorities of Mexico. (0038-0039)

Ejercito Popular Revolucionario (PDPR)

Box 2 Folder 11

November. No.3 Newsletter. Includes manifesto of the Partido Democratico Popular Revolucionario. Editorial and various political issues. (0042-0071)

Box 2 Folder 12

Photocopy of publication. Various communications of the EPR and PDPR to the people of Michoacan, the Congreso Nacional Indigena, among others. (0073-0151)

Box 2 Folder 13

Undated. Photocopy of publication. Manual of basic military tactics for use of the EPR. (0153-0191)

Box 2 Folder 14

April 10. Photocopy of document. Calls on workers and campesinos to unite efforts in the revolutionary movement. (0193-0195)

Box 2 Folder 15

1 folded sheet. Political and economic plan for Mexico as set forth by the PDPR. (0197-0199)

Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional (EZLN)

Box 2 Folder 16

December. No. 1, Newsletter. Declaration of war against the Mexican army, instructions for EZLN leaders, regulations governing armed revolutionaries, rights of women and agrarian revolutionaries, etc. (0202-0213)

Box 2 Folder 17

After 1993. Photocopy of annotated typescript. Economic and social conditions in Mexico, objectives of the EZLN. (0215-0247)

Box 2 Folder 18

Acuerdo; Documento 1--Pronunciamiento conjunto que el gobierno federal y el EZLN enviaran a las instancias de debate y decision nacional; Documento 2--Propuestas conjuntas que el gobierno federal y el EZLN se comprometen a enviar a las instancias de debate y decision nacional, correspondientes al punto 1.4 de las reglas de procedimiento; Documento 3.1--Compromisos para Chiapas del gobierno del estado y federal y el EZLN, correspondientes al punto 1.3 de las reglas de procedimiento; Documento 3.2--Acciones y medidas para Chiapas compromisos y propuestas conjuntas de los gobiernos del estado y federal y el EZLN. Photocopy of annotated typescript. Includes text of an accord and other resolutions between the EZLN and the Mexican government. (0249-0268)

Box 2 Folder 19

October 14. Printout of FAX. Address to the Convencion Nacional Democratica by a leader of the EZLN. (0270-0272)

Box 2 Folder 20

May. No. 34, Photocopy of Newsletter. Various messages from Subcommander Marcos. (0274-0281)

Federacion de Estudiantes Universitarios de Sinaloa (FEUS) (associated with Movimiento Enfermo de Si)

Box 3 Folder 1

After 1972. Holograph manuscript. An overview of the development of radical student groups in Sinaloa from the 1950s through the 1970s. (0002-0009)

Frente Estudiantil Revolucionario (FER)

Box 3 Folder 2

Photocopy of typescript. Calls for a socialist revolution in Mexico, with focus on the situation at the University of Guadalajara. (0012-0018)

Box 3 Folder 3

Carbon copy of typescript. Charts the theoretical and historical development of the socialist revolutionary movement in Mexico. (0020-0030)

Box 3 Folder 4

January 10. Photocopy of typescript. On the death of Pedro Orozco Guzman as a result of hostilities on 24 December 1973 in Guadalajara. Much on the efforts of FER. (0032-0044)

Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias (FAR)

Box 3 Folder 5

Undated. By-laws of the FAR, including rules governing members and use of arms. (0047-0052)

Fuerzas de Liberacion Nacional (FLN)

Box 3 Folder 6

Photocopy of undated publication. Extracts from a work of military tactics by General A. Bayo for the use of the FLN. (0055-0064)

Box 3 Folder 7

October 24. Flyer. Illustrated propaganda circular. (0066-0067)

Fuerzas Revolucionarias Armadas Del Pueblo (FRAP)

Box 3 Folder 8

Annotated mimeograph typescript. Questions and answers regarding revolutionary actions conducted by FRAP. (0070-0072)

Box 3 Folder 9

After 1972. Carbon copy of typescript. Background on "Operation Madera" including interviews with individuals involved in FRAP bank robberies in the state of Chihuahua in January 1972. (0074-0078)

Box 3 Folder 10

May 4. Carbon copy of typescript. Announces kidnapping of American consul Terrance Leon Hardy by FRAP and requirements for his release. (0080-0082)

Box 3 Folder 11

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Background information on FRAP agenda and actions, including historical material. (0084-0087)

Box 3 Folder 12

November 7. Annotated carbon copy of typescript. Autobiographical account by Francisco Juventino Campana Lopez, including details of his torture at hands of police officials and his imprisonment in Guadalajara. (0089-0118)

Box 3 Folder 13

After 1973. Carbon copy of typescript. Autobiographical account by a member of the FRAP. (0120-0148)

Box 3 Folder 14

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Essay on the origins of the armed revolutionary movement in Mexico by Francisco Perez. (0150-0156)

Guerra Popular (GPG)

Box 3 Folder 15

February. Photocopies. Both items relate to the life of Arturo Gamiz, especially actions in Madera, Chihuahua. (0159-0192)

Box 3 Folder 16

March 26. A collection of photocopied pages of various text pages, extensively annotated in the margins, in Spanish. The source text is not identified, but appears to be an autobiographical account of a Chinese revolutionary. (0194-0208)

Box 3 Folder 17

February. Photocopy of typescript. Overview of agrarian reform efforts in Mexico since Porfirio Diaz, by Pablo Gomez Ramirez. (0210-0213)

Box 3 Folder 18

Undated. First hand account of revolutionary activities. (0215-0222)

Box 3 Folder 19

September 23. Photocopy. Biography of Dr. Pablo Gomez Ramirez. (0224-0225)

Box 3 Folder 20

Undated. Photocopy. Account of various participants in revolutionary movement in the mid-1960s with names changed, e.g. "Ernesto" is Arturo Gamiz. (0227-0233)

Box 3 Folder 21

July. No. 6. Photocopy of newsletter. Land issues and other topics of concern to the campesinos of Chihuahua and Durango. (0235-0240)

Box 3 Folder 22

September. No. 8. Photocopy of newsletter. Calls for the resignation of Governor Giner Duran. Other articles relating to land distribution. (0242-0247)

Box 3 Folder 23

Undated. No. 2. Photocopy of publication. Overview of colonial economic system. (0249-0254)

Box 3 Folder 24

Undated. No. 3. Photocopy of publication. Summary history of Mexico. (0256-0266)

Box 3 Folder 25

Undated. No. 5. Photocopy of publication. Overview of revolutionary groups and activities in Mexico. Calls for armed revolution in Mexico. (0268-0276)

Liga Comunista Espartaco (LCE)

Box 3 Folder 26

March 15. Carbon copy of document. Concerns of the "celula Sierra Maestra" regarding organization issues of the LCE. (0279-0283)

Box 3 Folder 27

October 14. Carbon copy of document. Circular notice in the wake of the Tlatelolco massacre. (0285-0287)

Box 3 Folder 28

October 7. Carbon copy of document. General statement on direction of LCE and student movement. (0289-0294)

Box 4 Folder 1

September. Vol. 1, no. 2. Features articles entitled: "Nace la liga comunista espartaco," "Critica del trotskismo," and "Quiebra del "tercer Mundo'". (0002-0025)

Box 4 Folder 2

December. Vol. 1, no. 3. Features articles entitled: "Contradicciones en el seno de la gran burguesia mexicana" and "Las posiciones politicas del MRP." Also supplement: "Discrepancias en el movimiento comunista internacional." (0027-0044)

Box 4 Folder 3

March 20. Vol. 5, no. 16. Reports of protests and actions in Monterrey, Ciudad Juarez, Durango, and elsewhere. (0047-0056)

Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre (LC23S)

Box 4 Folder 4

January. Marxist-Leninist manifesto. (0060-0124)

Box 4 Folder 5

February. Calls for the downfall of capitalism, with backdrop of meeting of foreign ministers in Mexico. (0126-0133)

Box 4 Folder 6

November. Issues facing armed revolutionary groups in Mexico. (0135-0151)

Box 4 Folder 7

October 2. Reproduction produced in 1978. Manifesto for student movement. (0153-0162)

Box 4 Folder 8

December. Reprint produced 1977. Issues relating to the socialist workers movement. (0164-0181)

Box 4 Folder 9

May. Reprint produced 1979 February. National workers plan. (0183-0194)

Box 4 Folder 10

After 1972. Photocopy of typescript. Historical development of workers movement in Mexico. (0196-0206)

Box 4 Folder 11

November 30. Photocopy. Political and military planning. (0208-0214)

Box 4 Folder 12

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Marxist-Leninist call to arms. (0216-0226)

Box 4 Folder 13

Text of both articles is identical. Internal ideological documents of the LC23S. (0228-0248)

Box 4 Folder 14

October. Publication. Impressions of the revolutionary movement in rural areas by "Oseas." (0250-0259)

Box 4 Folder 15

July. Mimeograph publication. Marxist-Leninist call to arms. (0261-0268)

Box 4 Folder 16

Undated. Mimeograph document. Essay concerning socialist revolution in Mexico addressed to student revolutionaries. (0270-0280)

Box 4 Folder 17

June. Calls for a boycott of elections. (0282-0293)

Box 4 Folder 18

April. Supplement to newsletter. Article on May Day. (00295-0298)

Box 4 Folder 19

February. Photocopy of publication. On strikes in the industrial area of Naucalpan. (0300-0307)

Box 4 Folder 20

June. Calls for boycott of elections. (0309-0320)

Box 4 Folder 21

November. Photocopy of publication. Emergency medical manual for revolutionaries. (0322-0349)

Box 4 Folder 22

October. Marxist-Leninist call to arms. (0351-0373)

Box 5 Folder 1

January. Newsletter. Addressed to groups of factory workers. (0002-0007)

Box 5 Folder 2

January. Two copies. One a photocopy of a typescript, the other a printout of a different typescript of the same text. Analysis of the manifesto of the revolutionary movement in Mexico. (0009-0051)

Box 5 Folder 3

November. Newsletter. Addressed to railroad workers. (0053-0057)

Box 5 Folder 4

Undated. Mimeograph typescript. Addressed to the workers of Naucalpan. (0059-0064)

Box 5 Folder 5

February. Call to arms addressed to the workers of C.I.S.A. (0066-0070)

Box 5 Folder 6

October. Photocopy of typescript. On class conflict in the Costa Chica region of Oaxaca. (0072-0080)

Box 5 Folder 7

February. Photocopy. A call to the workers of Altos Hornos to strike. (0082-0087)

Box 5 Folder 8

November. Photocopy of typescript. Call to arms. Cites example of workers of Medalla de Oro. (0089-0105)

Box 5 Folder 9

June 30. Newsletter. Concerns student movement, especially that of the Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlan. (0107-0111)

Box 5 Folder 10

July. Newsletter. Concerns the formation of a Consejo General de Representantes in the U.N.A.M. (0113-0118)

Box 5 Folder 11

September 7. Newsletter. Relates to Sept. 10 strike by workers of the UNAM. (0120-0123)

Box 5 Folder 12

July. Incomplete publication (lacking pages after p. 48). Relates to strikes by university workers in Mexico. (0125-0151)

Box 5 Folder 13

Transcription of conference proceedings. (0153-0206)

Box 5 Folder 14

November 5. Relates to teachers meeting in Mexico City to demand wage increases. (0208-0212)

Box 5 Folder 15

October. A call to arms addressed to Mexican workers. (0214-0222)

Box 5 Folder 16

Undated. Photocopy of typescript. Calls on workers of a Philco factory to undertake a massive strike. (0224-0228)

Box 5 Folder 17

March. Relates to use of police to repress political demonstrations. Includes recommendations to revolutionaries on conducting clandestine activities. (0230-0243)

Box 5 Folder 18

March 28. Carbon copy of typescript. Student movement in the UNAM, also preparations for upcoming May Day. (0245-0248)

Box 5 Folder 19

October 12. Newsletter. Strikes by university workers. (0250-0255)

Box 5 Folder 20

April. Notes on preparing for May Day, also expressions of solidarity with revolutionaries in Vietnam and Cambodia. (0257-0263)

Box 5 Folder 21

September. Illustrated manual of military tactics, including directions on use of firearms. (0265-0304)

Box 6 Folder 1

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Tasks of the student movement. (0002-0004)

Box 6 Folder 2

March. Calls for revolutionary actions instead of usual celebrations for May Day. (0006-0009)

Box 6 Folder 3

June. Photocopy of newsletter. Reviews repression of student protesters ten years before in Nuevo Leon. (0011-0017)

Box 6 Folder 4

February 5. No. 5. Photocopy of typescript for program. Agenda of the LC23S. (0020-0043)

Box 6 Folder 5

December. No. 6. Photocopy of mimeograph newsletter. Internal documents relating to activities and agenda of LC23S. (0045-0074)

Box 6 Folder 6

Includes two other titles also related to organization: Organizacion de masas y consejo de representantes and Acerca de los consejos de representantes. (0077-0087)

Box 6 Folder 7

February. The importance of the student movement within the revolution. (This folder was omitted from the microfilm by error. Complete photocopy also availble; in folder marked 6.7) (0089-0093)

Box 6 Folder 8

Undated. No. 3. Stencil publication. Marxist-Leninist background. (0095-00111)

Box 6 Folder 9

June. No. 3 bis. Photocopy of reprint produced in 1981 August. Marxist-Leninist background by Ignacio Arturo Salas Obregon (OSEAS). (0113-0141)

Box 6 Folder 10

April 19. No. 4. Stencil publication. Exploitation of workers in Mexican capitalism, class conflict, further economic and historical background of the LC23S. (0143-0159)

Box 6 Folder 11

January. Ano 2, no. 2. Stencil publication. Editorial on the LC23S role in directing national days of "agitation and combat." Also a section on the revolutionary movement in Sinaloa and Guadalajara. (0161-0187)

Box 6 Folder 12

April. No. 3. Photocopy. Various articles on the activities of the LC23S. (0189-0260)

Box 6 Folder 13

May. No. 4. Photocopy. A reunion of revolutionary groups, organizing a revolutionary newspaper, also lengthy articles on general direction of the LC23S. (0262-0295)

Box 6 Folder 14

December. No. 6. Photocopy. Editorial plus several articles on direction of revolutionary movement in Mexico, the downfall of capitalism, etc. (0297-0317)

Box 6 Folder 15

February. No. 9. Photocopy. Collection of articles on direction of LC23S, also calls to the workers of General Electric, and maquila workers of Tapetes, S.A. of Texcoco (Estado de Mexico). (0319-0365)

Box 6 Folder 16

March. No. 10. Editorial and articles on exploitation of workers under capitalism in Mexico. (0367-0393)

Box 7 Folder 1

April. No. 11. May Day sign of solidarity with workers of Indochina, also articles on the crisis of capitalism, events at the UNAM, etc. (0002-0026)

Box 7 Folder 2

May. No. 13. Photocopy. May Day, letter to construction workers, etc. (0028-0053)

Box 7 Folder 3

May. No. 13. This issue differs substantially in format from those described above. Editorial on developments in Vietnam and Cambodia. Also May Day in Guadalajara. (0055-0078)

Box 7 Folder 4

March. Nos. 18 and 20. Strikes, movimiento "enfermo" in Sinaloa, etc. (0080-0105)

Box 7 Folder 5

May. No. 21. Photocopy. Call to boycott elections. (0107-0120)

Box 7 Folder 6

September. No. 24. Photocopy. Devaluation of the peso, letter to railroad workers, and a call for intensified revolutionary efforts among maquiladora workers. (0122-0136)

Box 7 Folder 7

April. No. 30. Photocopy. Letter to the workers of Cerveceria Modelo, the most recent mobilizations in Monterrey, etc. (0138-0154)

Box 7 Folder 8

November. No. 33. Photocopy. General strike in Colombia, developments at the UNAM, criticism of Brezhnev. (0156-0174)

Box 7 Folder 9

June. No. 37. Perspectives on the telephone workers strike, events in Sonora, etc. (0176-0195)

Box 7 Folder 10

September. No. 38. Railroad workers should prepare themselves for a fight, the poor of Huasteca and the Sierra Norte of Puebla, the chronicles of 1968. (0197-0216)

Box 7 Folder 11

November. No. 39. Hunger strikes for the release of detained revolutionaries, boycotting upcoming elections in Sonora. (0218-0237)

Box 7 Folder 12

March. No. 40. Events in Nicaragua, Vietnam, and Iran. (0239-0260)

Box 7 Folder 13

June. No. 41. Events on Monclova, Nicaragua, and elsewhere. (0262-0280)

Box 7 Folder 14

August. No. 42. Photocopy. Oil and the revolutionary movement in Mexico, socialism in Cuba. (0282-0298)

Box 7 Folder 15

March. No. 50. Photocopy. Includes an editorial that reviews last six years of the publication's existence, tributes to founders of LC23S, also events in El Salvador, etc. (0300-0318)

Box 7 Folder 16

July. No. 51. Photocopy. Nicaragua, El Salvador, university and railroad workers, list of lost or fallen comrades. (0320-0334)

Box 7 Folder 17

April. No. 52. Events at the UNAM, workers in Ciudad Juarez, remembrance lost or fallen comrades, preparations for national teachers' strike. (0336-0355)

Box 7 Folder 18

September. No. 53. Workers in Poland, events in El Salvador, capitalism in Mexico, mobilization of rural students in Mexico. (0357-0375)

Box 7 Folder 19

October. No. 54. Workers in Ciudad Juarez, memorial to three fallen revolutionaries killed in Chihuahua in 1977. (0377-0395)

Box 7 Folder 20

November. No. 55. Photocopy. El Salvador, fallen comrades, university workers, teachers' strike, Airco strike, etc. (0397-0413)

Box 8 Folder 1

December. No. 56. Events in Sonora, Sinaloa, El Salvador, fallen comrades, analysis of capital flight from Mexico, summary of the revolutionary movement. (0002-0019)

Box 8 Folder 2

April. No. 57. Overview of teachers' strike, revolutionary activities relating to the 1982 elections. (0021-0038)

Movimiento de Accion Revolucionaria (MAR)

Box 8 Folder 3

Undated. Holograph manuscript, accompanied by complete transcript. Analysis of Marxist-Leninist ideas. (0041-0078)

Box 8 Folder 4

Undated. Photocopy of holograph manuscript. Class conflict, general notes on Marxist ideas. List of books. (0080-0088)

Box 8 Folder 5

Undated. Photocopy lacking p. 23. General manual of the MAR (origins, flag, hymn, etc.), relationships between various revolutionary groups, brief history of the armed revolutionary movement, use of weapons and explosives, military organization, food and diet in the field. (0090-0110)

Box 8 Folder 6

Undated. Photocopy. Syllabus of military instruction conducted by Prof. Miguel Quinones and Dr. Pablo Gamez. (0112-0114)

Box 8 Folder 7

Undated. Photocopy. Report on organization and program of study of a school for revolutionaries. (0116-0122)

Box 8 Folder 8

December. Photocopy. Program of study for a seminar or small school of military topics. (0124-0133)

Box 8 Folder 9

Undated. Photocopy. Overview of history of armed revolutionary movement in Mexico since 1959. (0135-0139)

Box 8 Folder 10

Undated. Photocopy of incomplete typescript (last page or more are missing). The crisis of capitalism. (0141-0149)

Box 8 Folder 11

Undated. Photocopy. Manual of "safety measures" for clandestine revolutionary activity, including transportation, communication, codes, weapons, propaganda, "expropriation" of automobiles for military use, etc. (0151-0167)

Box 8 Folder 12

August. Photocopy. Outlines military and organizational strategy of the revolutionary movement. With extensive notes on organizing workers into armed units. Also general philosophical background of the revolutionary movement in Mexico. (0169-0196)

Box 8 Folder 13

Winter. Photocopy. Imperialism, the Mexican state, class conflict, political mobilization, outline history of the armed revolutionary movement. (0199-0207)

Movimiento Popular Revolucionario (MPR)

Box 8 Folder 14

Undated. After 1992. Broadsheet. Rails against political parties in Mexico (particularly the PRD), elections, North American imperialism. (0210-0212)

Partido de los Pobres (PDLP)

Box 8 Folder 15

January. Paste-ups. Principles and background of the PDLP. (0215-0218)

Box 8 Folder 16

March. Paste-ups. Objectives of the PDLP. (0220-0223)

Box 8 Folder 17

August 26. Paste-up. From Revista Punto Critico, no. 9. Reports on an attack by the PDLP on the Mexican army. (0225-0226)

Box 8 Folder 18

August. Photocopy of article published in Revista Punto Critico, no. 9. Explains the objectives of the PDLP, addresses members of the Mexican military as well as workers and campesinos. (0228-0230)

Box 8 Folder 19

May 9. Photocopy. Regarding a meeting between leaders of the PDLP and Senator Figueroa. (0232-0233)

Box 8 Folder 20

May. Photocopy. Regarding Figueroa's reply to Castro's previous communication. (0235-0236)

Box 8 Folder 21

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Explanation of compartmentalization of tasks within an organization. (0238-0241)

Box 8 Folder 22

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Steps toward forming a revolutionary army of poor workers and campesinos. (0243-0247)

Box 8 Folder 23

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Plan for organizing workers against the rich. (0249-0253)

Box 8 Folder 24

Undated. Photocopy. Principles and objectives of the PDLP. (0255-0260)

Box 8 Folder 25

Undated. Photocopy. Plan for organizing a small groups of poor workers. (0262-0264)

Box 8 Folder 26

Undated. Carbon copy of typescript. Biography of Cabanas, his example as a revolutionary leader, his death at hands of Mexican military, objectives of the PDLP. (0266-0270)

Partido Proletario Unido de America (PPUA)

Box 8 Folder 27

After 1976. Photocopy. Objectives and general program of the PPUA, especially uniting Latin America against "yankee imperialism." (0273-0289)

Partido Revolucionario Obrero Clandestino Union del Pueblo (PROCUP)

Box 9 Folder 1

April. Computer printout. Concerns increased levels of repression by police officials, answers to statements against PROCUP made by Miguel Angel Granados Chapa. (0002-0003)

Box 9 Folder 2

April. Computer printout. Communique by the PROCUP answering to statements by the P.R.T. and the F.N.C.R. (0005-0006)

Box 9 Folder 3

Undated. Carbon copy. A call to workers, students, and the public in general, to join the revolutionary movement. (0008-0012)

Box 9 Folder 4

February. Stencil printing. Comminque No. 1 by the PROCUP addressed to the working class, campesinos, students and Indians. (0014-0018)

Box 9 Folder 5

September. Stencil printing. Communique no. 2. Calls for the formation of the Ejercito del Pueblo. (0020-0028)

Box 9 Folder 6

Undated. Mimeograph. Reports on a group of comrades that have fallen into enemy hands in Mexico City. Also sets forth guidelines of the organization. (0030-0031)

Box 9 Folder 7

Undated. Carbon copy. Outline of organization for clandestine revolutionary groups, including tactics, mode of action, etc. (0033-0042)

Box 9 Folder 8

Undated. Carbon copy. Economic and political basis for the guerrilla movement. (0044-0047)

Box 9 Folder 9

Undated. Carbon copy. History of Mexican Revolution and background of later revolutionary movements in Mexico from Marxist-Leninist perspective. (0049-0064)

Box 9 Folder 10

October. Stencil printing. Celebrates the revolutionary movement in light of the 500th anniversary of Columbus' arrival in America. (0067-0069)

Box 9 Folder 11

May. Stencil printing. Communique no. 3. Names traitors to the movement, including detailed accusations. (0071-0074)

Box 9 Folder 12

Undated. Carbon copy. By Jose Luis Cortes Gutierrez. Regarding the direction and leadership of the PROCUP. (0076-0080)

Box 9 Folder 13

July 7. Stencil printing. Regarding the capture of four comrades and general comments on political repression and legalized violence against revolutionary groups. (0083-0085)

Box 9 Folder 14

July 10. Photocopy publication. Perspectives of the PROCUP for a Convencion Nacional Democratica called by the EZLN. (0087-0092)

Box 9 Folder 15

July. Ano XIII, no. 40. Analysis of economic situation in Mexico, also article on the revolutionary movement in other parts of Latin America and a poem. (0094-0107)

Box 9 Folder 16

September. Ano XIII, no. 41. Editorial on economic situation in Mexico, notes on recent history of revolutionary movement in Mexico (especially 23 Sept. 1965), also "Yankee" intervention in Mexico and a poem in honor of an Irish Republican Army hero. (0109-0116)

Box 9 Folder 17

November. Ano XIII, no. 42. Marxist-Leninist ideological guide for the worker. Also editorial against worldwide capitalist imperialism. Also a poem. (0118-0127)

Box 9 Folder 18

May-June. Ano XIV, no. 45. Outlines history of PROCUP and the PDLP, reprints several press releases by PROCUP. Also article on imperialist interventions in Mexico and Latin America. (0129-0139)

Box 9 Folder 19

July-August. Ano XIV, no. 46. Reviews actions at offices of La Jornada on 2 April. Summary of five press releases issued in June and July 1990. The role of women in the revolutionary movement. Also a poem. (0141-0151)

Box 9 Folder 20

September-October. Ano XV, no. 47. The crisis of capitalism in the wake of NAFTA, homage to Che Guevara, importance of September in annals of Mexican revolutions. Also a poem. (0153-0167)

Box 9 Folder 21

January-February. Anox XIX, no. 73. Mexico's economic crisis, devaluation of the peso, also Mexico's recent elections. (0169-0181)

Box 9 Folder 22

September-October. Ano XX, no. 77. Economic situation in Mexico, official political repression, declaration of the PROCUP addressed to the workers of Mexico. Statement of solidarity with the EZLN. (0183-0205)

PROCESOS

Box 9 Folder 23

December. Photocopy. Dynamics of revolutionary movement in Mexico, especially after 1968. (0208-0244)

Box 9 Folder 24

November. Photocopy. The revolutionary process. (0226-0233)

Box 9 Folder 25

December. Photocopy. Right hand margins are truncated on pp. 3 and 4. Historical process of the revolution. (0235-0237)

Box 9 Folder 26

September. Carbon copy. Overview of history and direction of revolutionary movement in Mexico by Raul Ramos Zavala, with focus on the Juventud Comunista (JC). (0239-0273)

Vanguardia Armada del Pueblo (VAP)

Box 9 Folder 27

January-May. Stencil printing. Primitive communism, origins of socialism, world capitalism, imperialism, outline history of capitalism in Mexico. Strategy and character of the armed revolution in Mexico, creation of a revolutionary newspaper in Mexico. (0275A-0341)