Ian Tyson Collection, 1966-2006 (MSS 0413)

Extent: 5.6 Linear feet (4 archives boxes, 2 map case folders, and 8 flat boxes)

The Ian Tyson Collection contains book production materials for collaborations between Ian Tyson, the British painter, printmaker and book artist, and prominent poets including Andrew Crozier, Larry Eigner, Wai-lim Yip, Jackson Mac Low, and Jerome Rothenberg. Materials include correspondence, manuscripts, page layouts, paste-ups, galley proofs, and Tyson's original artworks.

Ian Tyson was born in Wallasey, Cheshire, United Kingdom in April 1933. Tyson grew up in Upton, outside of Birkenhead, but spent much time as a child with his grandparents near Wigan. He attended school in Wigan during the World War II and later attended his father's old school. It was there he was introduced to modern art and creating expressive and abstract art. After graduating, he worked as an apprentice engineer in the shipyards for two years. He decided, though, that his future was not in engineering, and continued making artwork independently, determined to attend Birkhead School of Art, where he remained for about two years.

In 1954, Tyson moved to London where he studied figure and life painting at the Royal Academy Schools for four years, in addition to attending etching and lithography evening classes. He then took a position in the printmaking department at the Camberwell School of Art and Craft, then about a year later, taught lithography at the Farmham School of Art from 1959-1966. His first solo show was in 1958-59 at the 1957 Gallery in Edinburgh. It was at Farnham where he met Ron King and in 1967 when King formed Circle Press, he joined him and started screenprinting. Shortly thereafter, he met Jerome Rothenberg through Stuart Montgomery of Fulcrum Press. When Rothenberg saw Tyson's visual interpretations of poetry he suggested one of his poems, which led to the first collaboration between the two and the second publication of Circle Press, SIGHTINGS I-IX & RED EASY A COLOR (1968).

In 1970, Tyson founded his own press in London, Tetrad Press, where he worked with contemporary artists and poets including Jackson Mac Low, Tom Phillips, Roy Fisher, and Larry Eigner. During this time, he created visual interpretations of his own texts including LETTERS FROM THE BLACK PALACE I-III (1971) and STANZA FROM THE GRAVE (1972). In addition to his printmaking and book works, he also created paintings and sculptures. Tyson operated Tetrad Press until 1995, whereupon he started ED.IT Press at his home in France.

He was a visiting professor at the Royal College of Art (1984), the University of Wisconsin, Madison (1969) and the University of California, San Diego (1992), and a Brinkley Fellow at the Norwich School of Art (1979-1980).

While he has continued to produced books arts and prints, he also has increasingly engaged in sculpture. Permanent installations of his sculptures are located in Drome and Séguret, France; London; and the University of East Anglia. In the course of his career, he has been featured in more than 32 solo exhibitions and 44 group exhibitions and his work can be found in more than three dozen public collections across North American and Europe.

The Ian Tyson Collection contains book production materials for collaborations between Ian Tyson, the British painter, printmaker and book artist, and prominent poets including Andrew Crozier, Larry Eigner, Wai-lim Yip, Jackson Mac Low, and Jerome Rothenberg. Materials include correspondence, manuscripts, page layouts, paste-ups, galley proofs, and Tyson's original artworks. Ian Tyson's books are the main focus in the collection and include: A Line That May be Cut (1968); Sightings I-IX, and, Red Easy a Color (1968); 17 Horse Songs of Frank Mitchell, Nos. X-XII (1969); 23rd Light Poem for Larry Eigner (1969); The Pronouns (1971); Narratives and Real Theater Pieces (1977); History of Dada as my Muse (1982); Songs from the Society of the Mystic Animals (1982); Poem: A Cast of Dice Never can Annul Chance (1985); Millenium (1988); Six Gematria (1992); Surimono 3 (1995); Pavan (2002); Vert(ical) (2003); Jardin de V(ie) (2004); and Surimono 7, after Li Ho (2005).

Arranged in three series: 1) BOOK COLLABORATIONS, 2) BOOKS BY TYSON, and 3) MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS.

Container List

BOOK COLLABORATIONS

Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) BOOK COLLABORATIONS: Original artwork, manuscripts, page layouts, paste-ups, galley proofs, and correspondence for book collaborations with notable poets and writers. Materials document the exchange of ideas, conceptual planning, and specifications and directions between the printmakers, poets and artists.

Arranged in subseries alphabetically by author.

Crozier, Andrew

Box: 1 Folder: 1
Utamaro Variations (1982) - Typescripts with annotations and proofs from woodblocks

Includes cut-outs of design and pencil and pen drawings on paper.

Box: 1 Folder: 2
Along the Threshold: Some Remarks about Ian Tyson's Prints - Typescript, undated

Eigner, Larry

Box: 1 Folder: 3
Correspondence, 1968 - 1987
Box: 1 Folder: 4
A Line That May Be Cut (1968)

Artwork.

Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 6
A Line That May Be Cut (1968) - Prospectus

Circle Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 5
Fragments: Twenty-Two Woodblocks (1988)

Includes edited typescripts of colophon statement, notes, typescript copy of poem, and copies of grid block drawings.

Farrer, Julia

Box: 1 Folder: 6
Brochure, resume and review, 2000

Article mentions collaboration with Tyson.

Fisher, Roy

Box: 1 Folder: 7
Metamorphoses (1970) - Typography, drafts with annotations on photocopies

Tetrad Press, London.

Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 7
Metamorphoses (1970) - Abandoned first proofs, with typography layouts, paste-ups and trial etchings
Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 8
Metamorphoses (1970) - Clamshell box
Box: 1 Folder: 8
Cultures (1975) - Correspondence with Roy Fisher, 1970 - 1979

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 9
Cultures (1975) - Original hand-drawn layout by Roy Fisher, with annotations on photocopies

5 leaves.

Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 9
Cultures (1975) - Mock-up, original typographic grid drawing and layouts by Ian Tyson
Box: 1 Folder: 10
Roller (1999) - Original texts on index cards and first (abandoned) drafts, with letter by Fisher

Circle Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 11
Roller (1999) - Proposal, "continued" draft letters between Tyson, Fisher and Circle Press
Box: 1 Folder: 12
Roller (1999) - First proofs (computer generated text), with letter by Tyson to Fisher

Griffin, Jonathan

Box: 1 Folder: 13
Postcard addressed to Ian Tyson, 1985

Card concerns text set for Temple .

Mac Low, Jackson

Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 6
23rd Light Poem For Larry Eigner (1969)

Artwork.

Box: 1 Folder: 14
23rd Light Poem For Larry Eigner (1969)

Typescripts.

Box: 1 Folder: 15
Pronouns (1971)

Correspondence, 1969-1973.

Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 2
Pronouns (1971) artwork
Oversize: MC-054-01
Pronouns (1971) artwork
Box: 1 Folder: 16
Pronouns (1971) - Photocopy of manuscript
Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 3
Pronouns (1971) - Galley proofs
Box: 1 Folder: 17
Pronouns (1971) - Revised typescript, 1975

Mock, Jean-Yves

Box: 1 Folder: 18
Ich Sterbe (1989) - Correspondence, 1987 - 1989

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 19
Ich Sterbe (1989) - Writing by Mock, typescript drafts with annotations
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 7
Ich Sterbe (1989) - Layout of fold and typographic setting

Phillips, Tom

Box: 1 Folder: 20
Birth Of Art (1972) - Original handwritten text for the colophon page by Tom Phillips

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 21
Ein Deutsches Requiem - After Brahms (1972) - Colophon page, typescript with annotation

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 22
Ein Deutsches Requiem - After Brahms (1972) - Color proofs on regular and Saunder mould-made paper

One proof signed by Tom Phillips.

Box: 1 Folder: 23
Ein Deutsches Requiem - After Brahms (1972) - Layout for typography on color proof
Box: 1 Folder: 24
A Humument (1972-1974) - First proofs, one set signed by Tom Phillips

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 25
A Humument (1972-1974) - Title page and colophon

4 copies.

Box: 1 Folder: 26
A Humument (1972-1974) - Unsigned proofs
Oversize: FB-475 Folder: 1
A Humument (1972-1974) - Wooden case with blue Plexiglass cover

Pickney, Richard

Box: 1 Folder: 27
A Bridge and A Set Of Strings - Mock-up with pencil layout, six sheets folded

Power, Kevin

Box: 1 Folder: 28
Correspondence, 1979 - 1983
Box: 1 Folder: 29
Work In Progress (1977) - Original typescript poems and photograph [image used for drawing]

Trigram Press, London.

Box: 1 Folder: 30
Work In Progress (1977) - Layout and text paste-ups
Box: 1 Folder: 31
Work In Progress (1977) - Original drawings and print proofs
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 9
Work In Progress II (1977) - Mock-ups

Tetrad Press, London/Amsterdam, for Jan Tholenaar.

Box: 1 Folder: 32
De Morandi (1979) - Letter from Kevin Power and explanation of the "Morandi Series," with drawings and layouts
Box: 1 Folder: 33
De Morandi (1979) - Original drawings [6 leaves], one watercolor and layout of the title page

Circle Press, Guildford.

Box: 1 Folder: 34
De Morandi (1979) - Typescripts with annotations
Box: 1 Folder: 35
De Morandi (1979) - Proofs

6 leaves.

Box: 1 Folder: 36
Quercy Spine (1979-1980) - Poems by Kevin Power with letter and original drawings

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 2 Folder: 1
Heidegger My Way, and Scarcely (1982) - Typescript poem by Kevin Power with correspondence

Material relates to Work In Progress Jan Tholenaar Editions, Amsterdam.

Box: 2 Folder: 2
Heidegger My Way, and Scarcely (1982) - Typographic layout, paginated
Box: 2 Folder: 3
Heidegger My Way, and Scarcely (1982) - Preliminary drawings and possible layouts, 4 folded sheets
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 8
Heidegger My Way, and Scarcely (1982) - Mock-up with text paste-ups, 3 folios

Rothenberg, Jerome

Box: 2 Folder: 4-6
Correspondence, 1967 - 1993, 2003
Oversize: FB-475 Folder: 3
Correspondence, 2003

Includes oversize sketches for book ideas.

Box: 2 Folder: 7
Photographs of Rothenberg
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 1
Sightings I-IX; and, Red Easy A Color (1968) artwork
Box: 2 Folder: 8
17 Horse Songs of Frank Mitchell, Nos X-XIII (1969) artwork
Box: 2 Folder: 9
17 Horse Songs of Frank Mitchell, Nos X-XIII (1969) typescripts
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 4
17 Horse Songs of Frank Mitchell, Nos X-XIII (1969)

Variation on the 17 Horse Songs of Frank Mitchell. (2 items) Includes "Variation II for four voices" (1971). Unpublished artwork.

Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 5
17 Horse Songs of Frank Mitchell, Nos X-XIII (1969)

Variations on the 13th Horse Song of Frank Mitchell from the Translations of Jerome Rothenberg. Variation I Metamorphoses for 3 Voices. Into Black for Tom Phillips (1971). Unpublished artwork.

Box: 2 Folder: 10
Narratives and Real Theater Pieces (1977/1978) - Original drawings

15 leaves. Braad Editions, Loubressac, France.

Box: 2 Folder: 11
Narratives and Real Theater Pieces (1977)

Contains 2 extra prints, one on hand-colored paper.

Box: 2 Folder: 12
Narratives and Real Theater Pieces (1977/1978) - Proofs, 3 designs
Box: 2 Folder: 13
Narratives and Real Theater Pieces (1977/1978) - Text proof
Box: 2 Folder: 14
Song From The Society Of the Mystic Animals (1982) with Richard J. John - Manuscript
Box: 2 Folder: 15
Song From The Society Of the Mystic Animals (1982) with Richard J. John - Trial type sheets
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 2
Song From The Society Of the Mystic Animals (1982) with Richard J. John - Page layouts
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 3
Song From The Society Of the Mystic Animals (1982) with Richard J. John - Paste-ups
Box: 2 Folder: 16
Songs From the Society of Mystic Animals (1982) - "Vocal scores based on Jr. texts," layout with paste-ups

Related to Mystic Animals and 17 Horse Songs. 12 leaves. Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 2 Folder: 17
Songs From the Society of Mystic Animals (1982) - Text on acetates [negatives] with corrections
Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 10
Songs From the Society of Mystic Animals (1982) - Text proofs

6 leaves.

Box: 2 Folder: 18
Millenium (1988) manuscript
Box: 2 Folder: 19
Millenium (1988) page layout
Box: 2 Folder: 20
Millenium (1988) paste-up
Box: 2 Folder: 21
Six Gematria (1992) artwork
Box: 2 Folder: 22
Six Gematria (1992) manuscript
Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 4
Six Gematria (1992) page layout
Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 5
Six Gematria (1992) final paste-up
Box: 2 Folder: 23
Delight/Delices and Other Gematria (1997) - Typescript poems with corrections and typography specifications, 1997

Includes correspondence and notes. Editions Ottezec.

Box: 2 Folder: 24
Delight/Delices and Other Gematria (1997) - Layouts with explanations, paste-ups and original designs
Box: 2 Folder: 25
Delight/Delices and Other Gematria (1997) - Mock-up for portfolio with a collage cover
Box: 3 Folder: 1
Case For Memory (2001) - Poems and typescripts

Granary Books, New York.

Box: 3 Folder: 2
Case For Memory (2001) - Original drawings [8 leaves] with mock-up portfolio
Box: 3 Folder: 3
Case For Memory (2001) - Text on acetates for screen printing
Box: 3 Folder: 4
Case For Memory (2001) - Second of the original drawings on acetates for screen printing
Box: 3 Folder: 5
Case For Memory (2001) - First mock-up with paste-ups and layouts
Box: 3 Folder: 6
Case For Memory (2001) - Working mock-up with paste-ups and layouts
Box: 3 Folder: 7
Surimono 5: In Memory Of Paul Celan: Three Death Poems (2003) - Poem typescript

Also includes color inkjet proofs of designs, colored pencil mock-ups, and correspondence with Ian Tyson.

Box: 3 Folder: 8
Homage To Goya: The Sleep Of Reason (2006) - Mock-up booklet, two variants

Thayler, Carl

Oversize: FB-475 Folder: 4
Mariposa Suite Nos. I-VI (circa 1971) - First working proofs of etchings by Warrington Colescott

Also contains seven etchings, screen print colored, and unnumbered.

Van Dias, Robert

Box: 3 Folder: 9
Surimono 4 "White On White" (2001) - Mock-up with original drawing, one folded sheet

Wolff, Christian

Box: 3 Folder: 10
Prose Collection (1973) - Typescript with annotations, 1971
Oversize: FB-475 Folder: 5
Prose Collection (1973) - Cover mock-ups with folded inserts

Yip, Wai-lim

Box: 3 Folder: 11
Surimono 3 (1995) - correspondence
Oversize: FB-140 Folder: 1
Surimono 3 (1995) - Page layouts
Box: 3 Folder: 12
Surimono 3 (1995) - Paste-ups of 2 designs by Tyson

BOOKS BY TYSON

Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) BOOKS BY TYSON: Tyson collaborated with unique presses around the world, publishing limited edition artist's books. This series documents many aspects of contemporary and traditional printing, such as handset type and materials from print methods such as screen, linocut, woodblock, lithography, etching and drypoint. It also includes his handmade papers, bookbindings and boxes; and preprint maquettes, mock-up booklets, preliminary layouts, and drafts of text. Tyson has both contributed to and represented fine print presses in exhibitions at many libraries, art galleries and museums around the world. The material dates from 1966 to 2005, and demonstrates Tyson's wide-ranging skills of painting, drawing, printmaking, fine letterpress printing, poetry, and book arts.

The most prominent book material appearing in the series is from A Cast of Dice Never Can Annul Chance (1985), with pre-production materials consisting of reproductions of the original Stéphane Mallarmé poem, and translations, drafts, and hand-inked text layouts by Neil Crawford.

Materials are arranged chronologically by date of book publication.

Box: 3 Folder: 13
List of books and descriptions, Ian Tyson database A-Z
Box: 3 Folder: 14
Six Extracts From the Zenrinkushu with Decorations (1966) - Prospectus

Published by Ian Tyson, London.

Box: 3 Folder: 15
Approval Stamp Offer - Prints for first 'Stamp Offer', circa 1970-1971

Tetrad Press, London.

Oversize: FB-205 Folder: 11
Letters From The Black Palace I - IIII (1971) - Original drawings [10 leaves] and template

Tetrad Press, London.

Oversize: FB-475 Folder: 2
Letters From The Black Palace I - IIII (1971) - Clamshell box
Box: 3 Folder: 16
Stanzas of the Grave (1972) - Explanations of working process and text drafts

Tetrad Press, London.

Oversize: MC-195-01
A Illiers-Compray (1973?) - Suite of preliminary art work and progressive printing proofs

Includes set of fourteen colored screenprints, one black and white negative screen print for title page, and one mock-up title page with collage.

Screens I - XIV (1976)
Oversize: FB-431 Folder: 1
Drafts of poem by Ian Tyson, 2-page text paste-ups, layouts and clipping for collage

Kelpra Editions, London.

Oversize: FB-431 Folder: 2
Title page, proof with corrections
Oversize: FB-431 Folder: 3
Paste-ups of collage, 8 leaves paginated
Oversize: FB-431 Folder: 4
Screen print proof
Oversize: FB-431 Folder: 5
Mock-up, paginated
Oversize: FB-431 Folder: 6
Mock-up with color prints and acetate paste-ups, paginated

Authorized version for Pat Gilmour.

Life and Times Of Baby Woojams (1978)
Box: 3 Folder: 17
Text with corrections and note, circa 1978

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 3 Folder: 18
Original lettering of Gertrude Stein and proofs, circa 1978
Box: 3 Folder: 19
Mock-ups, 3 variations, circa 1978
Box: 3 Folder: 20
Cover negatives

Includes black and white negatives of Gertrude Stein and Alice Toklas' gravestones for cover.

New Art of Shadow (1978)
Box: 3 Folder: 21
Layout, typography and colophon draft
Box: 3 Folder: 22
Original drawings and layouts, 6 variations
Box: 3 Folder: 23
Proof
Box: 3 Folder: 24
Poem, with annotations
Notes From A Rural Region (1979/1980)
Oversize: FB-432 Folder: 1
1-page draft entitled, "Notes on Rural Architecture" and layout

Paginated. Tetrad Press, London.

Oversize: FB-432 Folder: 2
Text proofs of the title page and colophon
Oversize: FB-432 Folder: 3
Screen print proofs [4 variations] and original watercolor drawing
Oversize: FB-432 Folder: 4
Slipcase and folio cover
Zen - Alissprliche der Zen Meister (1981)
Box: 3 Folder: 25
Correspondence with Wolfgang Tiessen, 1979 - 1993

Edition Tiessen, Neu-Isenburg.

Box: 3 Folder: 26
Drawings and watercoloring by Tyson [12 leaves]

Includes abandoned drawings.

Box: 3 Folder: 27
2-page layout
Box: 3 Folder: 28
Woodcut proofs of 4 images [9 leaves]
Box: 3 Folder: 29
Hybrid Shoji (1984) - Maquette layouts and covers

Includes three booklets with patterned cutouts, unbound.

Box: 4 Folder: 1
Seasons - After Thomson (1984) - Original drawings [4 leaves]

Tetrad Press, London.

Box: 4 Folder: 2
Seasons - After Thomson (1984) - Mock-up with paste-ups, layouts and artist's proofs signed by Tyson
Poem: A Cast Of Dice Never Can Annul Chance (1985)
Box: 4 Folder: 3-4
Correspondence with Neil Crawford, circa 1981-1985
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 1
Mock-up and text paste-ups

Includes original photoset text for the colophon page.

Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 2
Drawings on acetates and templates for plate size
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 3
Mock-up, folio consisting of 6 original watercolors, 1984 - 1985

Includes texts proofs with corrections, signed by Tyson.

Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 4
Trial proofs of aquatints [12 drawings]

Includes signed proofs, "Apros Mallarme, H/C #1" and "State I" by Tyson.

Box: 4 Folder: 5
Copies of book reviews

Includes reviews of Stéphane Mallarmé's Un Coup De Dés .

Box: 4 Folder: 6
Copy of essay by Léon Cellier

Mallarmé, Redon, et Un Coup De Dés..., 1975.

Box: 4 Folder: 7
Edited typescript of colophon statement and translator's note

Includes annotated notes of layout in French.

Box: 4 Folder: 8
Handwritten poem draft text with corrections, 1970 - 1983
Box: 4 Folder: 9
Pencil layout design of cover
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 5
Photocopy set of original poem

Includes photocopy set of original poem at 11x17".

Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 6
Original photoset text for poem layout
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 7
Hand-inked text layout on tissue with edits
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 8
Hand-inked text layout denoting font size on tissue with edits
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 9
Original poem on acetates to final print size
Oversize: FB-479 Folder: 1
Hand-inked text layout at final print size on board
Oversize: FB-479 Folder: 2
Paste-up text layout at final print size on board
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 8
Hand-inked text layout denoting font size on tissue with edits
Oversize: FB-434 Folder: 9
Original poem on acetates to final print size
Oversize: FB-479 Folder: 1
Hand-inked text layout at final print size on board
Oversize: FB-479 Folder: 2
Paste-up text layout at final print size on board
Box: 4 Folder: 10
Saperaude - Beantwortung Der Frage: Was Ist Alifklarung (1987) - Paste-ups on proofs [10 images]

Edition Tiessen, Neu-Isenburg.

Box: 4 Folder: 11
Untitled lithograph printed Éditions Fanal (1990)

Printed for a New Year gift, 697 of 700.

Box: 4 Folder: 12
Zen Stories (1994) - Prospectus, insert of book

Edition Tiessen, Neu-Isenburg.

Box: 4 Folder: 13
A Propos "Le Livre": (D'Apres Stéphane Mallarmé) (2002) - Mock-up booklets with colored pencil and ink drawings

Includes loose ink drawings, colored pencil sketches, and text layout.

Box: 4 Folder: 14
Pavan (2002) - Maquettes layouts and grids

Includes three booklets each one page folded to five pages with colored pencil sketches.

Oversize: FB-477 Folder: 1
Vert(ical) (2003) - Mock-up booklets with pencil text layout and color photocopy insert pages
Box: 4 Folder: 15
T (2003) - Mock-up booklet with binding, paste-ups, and title cut-outs

Includes acetate cover lay overs, two booklets.

Oversize: FB-477 Folder: 2
Jardin De V(ie) (2004) - Mock-up booklets with cut-out inserts
Box: 4 Folder: 16
Surimono 7, After Li Ho (2005) - Mock-up print

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

Scope and Content of Series

Series 3) MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS: Non-book production items including exhibition materials in the form of posters, an interview with Ian Tyson by Pat Gilmour of the Tate Gallery, and slides of Ian Tyson's art work and exhibition views.

Box: 4 Folder: 17
Fluxpost West Commemorative International stamp sheet, 1978

Includes one sheet perforated with 64 artist stamps and exhibitor list.

Box: 4 Folder: 18
Interview: Ian Tyson talking to Pat Gilmour, curator of prints, Tate Gallery, about his prints 23.ix.75, 1977

Includes typescript transcription and cover letter from Tate Gallery.

Box: 4 Folder: 19
L'Ami Voyage...En Compagnie - Ian Tyson, Estampes et Livres D'Artiste

Includes two printed exhibition posters with mailed invitation, October 25-November 26, 2005.

Box: 4 Folder: 20
Slides of Ian Tyson's artwork, circa 1966-1980

Includes slides from exhibition views from Galerie Hoffman, 1980.