Leslie Orgel Papers, 1949-2007 (MSS 176)

Restrictions: Original media formats are restricted; researchers may request listening or viewing copies.

Extent: 32.8 Linear feet (79 archives boxes, 9 oversize folders, and 1 art bin item)

Papers of Leslie Eleazer Orgel (1927-2007), chemist and molecular biologist. Orgel was a senior fellow and research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he directed the Chemical Evolution Laboratory. The collection includes correspondence, writings, talks and lectures, research files, patents, administrative files, photographs, and audiovisual materials.

Leslie Eleazer Orgel was born in London, England, on January 12, 1927. He received his B.A. in chemistry with first class honors from the University of Oxford in 1949. In 1950 he was elected a fellow of Magdalen College and in 1951 was awarded his Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Oxford.

Orgel started his career as a theoretical inorganic chemist and continued his studies in this field at Oxford, the California Institute of Technology and the University of Chicago. In 1955 he joined the chemistry department at the University of Cambridge, where he did work in transition metal chemistry, published articles and wrote a textbook, Transition Metal Chemistry: Ligand Field Theory (1960).

In 1964 Orgel was appointed senior fellow and research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he directed the Chemical Evolution Laboratory. He was also an adjunct professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego, and was one of five principal investigators in the NASA-sponsored NSCORT program in exobiology. Orgel also participated in NASA's Viking Mars Lander Program as a member of the Molecular Analysis Team that designed the gas chromatography mass spectrometer instrument.

Orgel wrote The Origins of Life: Molecules and Natural Selection (1970) and co-authored with Stanley Miller The Origins of Life on the Earth (1974). He published over three hundred articles in his research areas. In Britain he was awarded the Harrison Prize in 1956 for his work in inorganic chemistry and elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1962. In the United States he received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1971, the Evans Award from Ohio State University in 1975, and the H.C. Urey Medal from the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life in 1993. He was an elected member of both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. Leslie Orgel died on October 27, 2007 in San Diego, California.

Papers of chemist and molecular biologist Leslie Eleazer Orgel (1927-2007). Orgel was a senior fellow and research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he directed the Chemical Evolution Laboratory. Orgel's research interests included nucleic acid chemistry, molecular evolution, prebiotic chemistry, and problems related to the origin of life. The collection includes correspondence, writings, talks and lectures, research files, patents, administrative files, photographs, and audiovisual materials.

Accession Processed in 2006

Arranged in seven series: 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL, 2) CORRESPONDENCE, 3) WRITINGS, 4) CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS, 5) CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS, 6) SUBJECT FILES, and 7) SALK INSTITUTE.

Accession Processed in 2018

Arranged in eight series: 8) BIOGRAPHICAL 9) CORRESPONDENCE, 10) TALKS AND LECTURES, 11) WRITINGS, 12) PROJECTS AND RESEARCH, 13) ORGANIZATIONS AND COMMITTEES, 14) PHOTOGRAPHS, and 15) SOUND AND VIDEO RECORDINGS.

Container List

Accession Processed in 2006

BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL

Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL: Orgel's annotated wall calendars, newspaper clippings, and his application for naturalization as a U.S. citizen. Arranged alphabetically.

Oversize FB-208 Folder 2-3
Calendars, 1982 - 1996
Box 1 Folder 1
Newspaper clippings, 1967 - 1973
Box 1 Folder 2
United States Department of Justice. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Application for naturalization, 1989

CORRESPONDENCE

Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) CORRESPONDENCE: Orgel's incoming and outgoing professional and personal correspondence. Arranged in four subseries: A) Outgoing Chronological Files, B) General, C) Scientific, and D) Personal.

A) Outgoing Chronological Files: Copies of outgoing letters from 1964 to 1991.

B) General: Correspondence associated with routine laboratory business: letters of inquiry regarding possible employment, correspondence with suppliers, requests for visits, and cordial correspondence. In most cases, the incoming letters are accompanied by outgoing replies. Arranged chronologically.

C) Scientific: Correspondence with colleagues and other scientists regarding scientific and technical issues, arranged alphabetically by author. Prominent correspondents include Francis Crick, Robin Holliday, Jean-Michel Labouygues, Stanley Miller, Carl Sagan, S.A. Seleznev, and Eugene Wigner. Arranged alphabetically by surname or corporate name.

D) Personal: Letters to and from friends and correspondence related to personal interests, travel plans and projects. Arranged chronologically.

Outgoing Chronological Files

Box 1 Folder 3-6
Correspondence, 1964 - 1965
Box 2 Folder 1-12
Correspondence, 1966 - 1976
Box 3 Folder 1-11
Correspondence, 1977 - 1983
Box 4 Folder 1-10
Correspondence, 1983 - 1987
Box 5 Folder 1-8
Correspondence, 1987 - 1991
Box 6 Folder 1
Correspondence, 1991

General

Box 6 Folder 2-7
Correspondence, 1964 - 1989

Scientific

Box 7 Folder 1
A - Miscellaneous
Box 7 Folder 2
Altman, Sidney, 1984
Box 7 Folder 3
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1973 - 1979
Box 7 Folder 4
American Journal of Human Genetics, 1978 - 1980

David E. Comings, editor.

Box 7 Folder 5
American Scientist, 1973 - 1979
Box 7 Folder 6
Arrhenius, Gustaf, 1974 - 1984
Box 7 Folder 7
Associated Scientific Publishers, 1973

F. Suater, Dept. managing director.

Box 7 Folder 8
Avracmides, George, 1982
Box 7 Folder 9-10
B - Miscellaneous
Box 7 Folder 11
Balasubramanian, R., 1983
Box 7 Folder 12
Baltscheffsky, Herrick, 1977 - 1978
Box 7 Folder 13
Ben-Nun, Akiva, 1971 - 1976
Box 7 Folder 14
Botkin, Daniel B., 1982 - 1983
Box 7 Folder 15
Brack, Andre, 1977 - 1982
Box 7 Folder 16
British Broadcasting Corporation, 1976 - 1980
Box 7 Folder 17
C - Miscellaneous
Box 7 Folder 18
Carmell, L., 1974
Box 7 Folder 19
Comfort, Alex, 1973 - 1978
Box 7 Folder 20
Crick, Francis H.C., 1965 - 1974
Box 7 Folder 21
D - Miscellaneous
Box 7 Folder 22
Danielli, James F., 1974 - 1980
Box 7 Folder 23
Dickerson, Richard E., 1979 - 1981
Box 7 Folder 24
Dyson, Freeman, 1981
Box 8 Folder 1
E - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 2
Eirich, F.R., 1984
Box 8 Folder 3
Encyclopedia of Ignorance (Miranda Weston-Smith), 1974 - 1979
Box 8 Folder 4
Eschenmoser, A., 1966
Box 8 Folder 5
F - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 6
Ferris, James P., 1969 - 1983
Box 8 Folder 7
G - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 8
Galas, David J., 1973 - 1980
Box 8 Folder 9
Gallant, Jonathan A., 1977
Box 8 Folder 10
Gould, Stephen Jay, 1981
Box 8 Folder 11
Granada Television Limited (Jack Smith, executive producer), 1979 - 1980
Box 8 Folder 12
H - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 13
Hendry, Lawrence B., 1981 - 1983
Box 8 Folder 14
Holliday, Robin, 1964 - 1978

See also Series 6: Aging.

Box 8 Folder 15
Horowitz, N.H., 1970 - 1984
Box 8 Folder 16
I - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 17
Idiot papers and comments, 1964 - 1979
Box 8 Folder 18
International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (ISSOL), 1989
Box 8 Folder 19
J - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 20
K - Miscellaneous
Box 8 Folder 21
Kendrew, John C., 1967 - 1975
Box 8 Folder 22
Khorana, Gobind H., 1969 - 1978
Box 9 Folder 1
Kornberg, Arthur, 1968 - 1981
Box 9 Folder 2
L - Miscellaneous
Box 9 Folder 3
Labouygues, Jean-Michel, 1974 - 1982
Box 9 Folder 4
Lagerkvist, Ulf, 1977 - 1979
Box 9 Folder 5
Lasser, David, 1981 - 1982

Includes interview with Orgel.

Box 9 Folder 6
Leonard, Nelson, 1988 - 1989
Box 9 Folder 7
M - Miscellaneous
Box 9 Folder 8
Mandell, Arnold J., 1981 - 1982
Box 9 Folder 9
Michelson, A.M., 1967 - 1968
Box 9 Folder 10
Miles, Todd, 1971 - 1983
Box 9 Folder 11
Miller, Stanley L., 1975 - 1983
Box 9 Folder 12
Monod, Jacques, 1963 - 1973
Box 9 Folder 13
N - Miscellaneous
Box 9 Folder 14
National Academy of Sciences, 1990
Box 9 Folder 15
Nature (Elizabeth Hughes, publisher), 1981
Box 9 Folder 16
Neurologische Klinik der Universität, 1974 - 1975
Box 9 Folder 17
Ninio, Jacques, 1974 - 1981
Box 9 Folder 18
O - Miscellaneous
Box 9 Folder 19
Oro, John, 1965 - 1983
Box 9 Folder 20
P - Miscellaneous
Box 9 Folder 21
Paecht-Horowitz, Mella, 1972
Box 9 Folder 22
Peters, David, 1981
Box 9 Folder 23
Phillips, William, 1965 - 1966
Box 9 Folder 24
Pitha, Josef, 1969 - 1974
Box 9 Folder 25
Ponnamperuma, Cyril, 1965 - 1970
Box 9 Folder 26
R - Miscellaneous
Box 9 Folder 27
Rabinowitz, Joseph M., 1969 - 1970
Box 9 Folder 28
Reese, Colin B., 1981 - 1984
Box 10 Folder 1
Robins, Roland K., 1968 - 1969
Box 10 Folder 2
The Royal Society, 1970 - 1985
Box 10 Folder 3-4
S - Miscellaneous
Box 10 Folder 5
Sagan, Carl, 1973 - 1982
Box 10 Folder 6
Schwartz, Alan W., 1972 - 1981
Box 10 Folder 7
Seleznev, S.A., 1974 - 1975
Box 10 Folder 8
Sobell, Henry M., 1965 - 1982
Box 10 Folder 9
Stein, Gabriel, 1965 - 1968
Box 10 Folder 10
Strehler, Bernard L., 1974 - 1981
Box 10 Folder 11
T - Miscellaneous
Box 10 Folder 12
Thaxton, Charles B., 1981 - 1983
Box 10 Folder 13
Todd, John H., 1969
Box 10 Folder 14
Townes, Charles, 1970 - 1972
Box 10 Folder 15
Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 1975 - 1980

Joan Morgan, staff editor.

Box 10 Folder 16
Ts'o, Paul O.P., 1968 - 1976
Box 10 Folder 17
U - Miscellaneous
Box 10 Folder 18
Usher, David A., 1975 - 1983
Box 10 Folder 19
V - Miscellaneous
Box 10 Folder 20
Verheyden, Julien P.H., 1983
Box 10 Folder 21
W - Miscellaneous
Box 10 Folder 22
Watson, J.D., 1980
Box 10 Folder 23
Wells, Robert D., 1982 - 1984
Box 10 Folder 24
Westheimer, Frank H., 1970 - 1984
Box 11 Folder 1
Wigner, Eugene P., 1963 - 1970
Box 11 Folder 2
Worth Publishers, Inc., 1973
Box 11 Folder 3
Y - Miscellaneous
Box 11 Folder 4
Yates, F. Eugene, 1980
Box 11 Folder 4
Z - Miscellaneous
Box 11 Folder 6
Zubay, Geoffrey, 1979 - 1981
Box 11 Folder 7
Unidentified correspondents

Personal

Box 11 Folder 8-12
Correspondence, 1971 - 1992

WRITINGS

Scope and Content of Series

SERIES 3) WRITINGS. Organized in two subseries: A) Published, and B) Unpublished.

A) Published: Drafts, manuscripts, correspondence, redacted referee reports, reprints, and figures of Orgel's published research articles, beginning with his numbered chronological list of publications. The subseries contains 259 of the 302 listed titles, including the draft and correspondence for his textbook An Introduction to Transition Metal Chemistry: Ligand Field Theory (1960), the only representative from his work while in England. Also included are materials for his other two books, The Origins of Life: Molecules and Natural Selection (1973) and The Origins of Life on the Earth (1974), with Stanley L. Miller. Of particular interest are Orgel's files for two collaborative articles with Francis Crick, "Directed Panspermia" (#137) and "Selfish DNA: The Ultimate Parasite" (#186), which contain abundant correspondence. Arranged numerically by article number.

B) Unpublished: Drafts and correspondence for titles that do not appear on Orgel's publications list, arranged alphabetically by title.

Published

Box 11 Folder 13
List of publications, 1951 - 1997
Box 11 Folder 14
61 - An Introduction to Transition Metal Chemistry: Ligand Field Theory (1960), 1960
Box 11 Folder 15
87 - Induction of Mutations in Bacteriophage T4 with Divalent Manganese. With A. Orgel, 1965
Box 11 Folder 16
89 - Reactions of Bromomalononitrile with Bases. With James P. Ferris, 1965
Box 11 Folder 17
90 - Formation of Condensed Phosphate in Aqueous Solution. With A. Beck, 1965
Box 12 Folder 1
91 - Aminomalononitrile and 4-Amino-5- Cyanomidazole in Hydrogen Cyanide Polymerization and Adenine Synthesis. With James P. Ferris, 1965
Box 12 Folder 2
93 - Photochemical Synthesis of Condensed Phosphates. With A. Beck, 1965
Box 12 Folder 3
94 - An Unusual Photochemical Rearrangement in the Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen Cyanide. With James P. Ferris, 1966
Box 12 Folder 4
95 - Conditions for Purine Synthesis: Did Prebiotic Synthesis Occur at Low Temperatures? With R. Sanchez and J. Ferris, 1966

Includes photographs.

Box 12 Folder 5
96 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. I. Aminomalononitrile and 4-Amino-5-Cyanomiclazole. With James P. Ferris, 1966
Box 12 Folder 6
97 - Cyanoacetylene in Prebiotic Synthesis. With R.A. Sanchez and J. Ferris, 1966
Box 12 Folder 7
101 - Nucleoside Synthesis Under Potentially Prebiotic Conditions. With C. Reid, 1967
Box 12 Folder 8
103 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. II. Synthesis of Purine Precursors and Amino Acids from Aqueous Hydrogen Cyanide. With Robert A. Sanchez and James P. Ferris, 1967
Box 12 Folder 9
104 - The Non-Enzymatic Synthesis of Deoxyadenylate Oligonucleotides on a Polyuridylate Template. With H. Schneider-Bernloehr, et al, 1968
Box 12 Folder 10
105 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. III. Synthesis of Pyrimidines from Cyanoacetylene and Cyanate. With James P. Ferris and Robert A. Sanchez, 1968
Box 12 Folder 11
106 - Specificity of Oligonucleotide Synthesis Directed by Polyuridylic Acid. With J. Sulston and R. Lohrmann, 1968
Box 12 Folder 12
107 - Prebiotic Synthesis: Phosphorylation in Aqueous Solution. With R. Lohrmann, 1968
Box 12 Folder 13
108 - Template-Directed Synthesis with Adenosine-5'-Phosphorimidazolide. With B.J. Weimann, et al, 1968
Box 12 Folder 14
109 - Non-Enzymic Synthesis of Deoxyadenulate Oligonucleotides on a Polyuridylate Template. With H. Schnieder-Bernloehr, et al, 1968
Box 12 Folder 15
110 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. IV. The Conversion of 4-Aminoinidazole-5-Carbonitrile Derivatives to Purines. With Robert A. Sanchez and James P. Ferris, 1968
Box 12 Folder 16
111 - Partial Resolution of DL-Adenosine by Template Synthesis. With Schneider-Bernloehr, et al, 1968
Box 12 Folder 17
112 - Evolution of the Genetic Apparatus, 1968
Box 12 Folder 18
114 - Non-Enzymic Oligonucleotide Synthesis on a Polytidylate Template. With J. Sulston, et al, 1969
Box 12 Folder 19
115 - Phosphorylation of D-Ribose in Aqueous Solution. With M. Halmann and R.A. Sanchez, 1969
Box 12 Folder 20
116 - Specificity of Template-Directed Synthesis with Adenosine Nucleosides. With H. Schneider-Bernloehr, et al, 1970
Box 12 Folder 21
117 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. V. Synthesis and Photoanomerization of Pyrimidine Nucleosides. With Robert A. Sanchez, 1970
Box 12 Folder 22
119 - In Vitro Selection of Qß Ribonucleic Acid Variants Resistant to Ethidium Bromide. With R. Saffhill, et al, 1970
Box 12 Folder 23
120 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. VI. Synthesis of Propiolaldehyde and Nicotinamide. With Michael J. Dowler, et al, 1970
Box 12 Folder 24
121 - The Maintenance of the Accuracy of Protein Synthesis and Its Relevance to Ageing: A Correction, 1970
Box 12 Folder 25
122 - Template Catalysis of Acetyl Transfer Reactions. With Nancy M. Chung and R. Lohrmann, 1971
Box 12 Folder 26
123 - Urea-Inorganic Phosphate Mixtures as Prebiotic Phosphorylating Agents. With R. Lohrmann, 1971
Box 12 Folder 27
124 - The Mechanism of the Trimetaphosphate-Induced Peptide Synthesis. With Nancy M. Chung, et al, 1971
Box 13 Folder 1
125 - Catalysts for the Polymerization of Adenosine Cyclic 2',3'-Phosphate on a Poly(U) Template. With M. Renz and R. Lohrmann, 1971
Box 13 Folder 2
128 - Prebiotic Phosphorylation of Thymidine at 65° C in Simulated Desert Conditions. With M.J. Bishop and R. Lohrmann, 1972
Box 13 Folder 3
129 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. VI. Synthesis of Purine Nucleosides. With William D. Fuller and Robert A. Sanchez, 1972
Box 13 Folder 4
130 - Polyphosphate and Trimetaphosphate Formation Under Potentially Prebiotic Conditions. With Ragnar Osterberg, 1972
Box 13 Folder 5
131 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. VII. Solid-State Synthesis of Purine Nucleosides. With William D. Fuller and Robert A. Sanchez, 1972
Box 13 Folder 6
132 - A Possible Step in the Origin of the Genetic Code, 1972
Box 13 Folder 7-9
133 - The Origins of Life: Molecules and Natural Selection (1973)

Includes figures and photographs.

Box 13 Folder 10
134 - Struvite and Prebiotic Phosphorylation. With G.J. Handschuh, 1973
Box 13 Folder 11
135 - An RNA that Multiplies Indefinitely with DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: I. Selection from a Random Copolymer. With Christof K. Biebricher, 1973
Box 13 Folder 12
136 - Further Studies of Urea-Catalyzed Phosphorylation Reactions. With R. Osterberg and R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box 13 Folder 13-14
137 - Directed Panspermia. With F.H.C. Crick, 1973
Box 13 Folder 15
139 - Ageing of Clones of Mammalian Cells, 1973
Box 14 Folder 1
140 - Prebiotic Activation Processes. With R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box 14 Folder 2
141 - The Effect of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on Urea-Catalyzed Phosphorylation Reactions. With G.J. Handschuh and R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box 14 Folder 3
142 - Catalysts for the Self-Polymerization of Adenosine Cyclic 2',3'-Phosphate. With M.S. Verlander and R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box 14 Folder 4
143 - Analysis of High Molecular Weight Material from the Polymerization of Adenosine Cyclic 2',3'-Phosphate. With M.S. Verlander, 1974
Box 14 Folder 5
144 - The Origins of Life on the Earth (with Stanley L. Miller, 1974)
Box 14 Folder 6
145 - On the Possible Role of Crystals in the Origins of Life. VII. The Adsorption and Polymerization of Phosphoramidates by Montmorillonite Clay. With F.G. Burton and R. Lohrmann, 1974
Box 14 Folder 7
146 - Sedimentary Minerals Under Reducing Conditions, 1974
Box 14 Folder 8
147 - Prebiotic Chemistry and Nucleic Acid Replication. With R. Lohrmann, 1974
Box 14 Folder 9
149 - Poly(U)-Directed Transamidation Between Adenosine 5'-Phophorimidazolide and 5'-Phosphoadenosine 2'(3')-Glycine Ester. With Jaewon L. Shim and Rolf Lohrmann, 1974
Box 14 Folder 10
150 - Oligonucleotide Synthesis Catalyzed by the Zn2+ Ion. With Hiroaki Sawai, 1975
Box 14 Folder 11
151 - Prebiotic Peptide-Formation in the Solid State. I. Reactions of Benzoate Ion and Glycine with Adenosine 5'-Phosphorimidazolide. With R. Lohrmann, et al, 1975
Box 14 Folder 12
152 - Triple Helices Formed by Polyuridylic Acid With Some Adenosine Derivatives. With J.L. Shim and R. Lohrmann, 1975
Box 14 Folder 13
153 - Prebiotic Peptide-Formation in the Solid State. II. Reaction of Glycine with Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate and P1,P2-Diadenosine-Pyrophosphate. With H. Sawai and R. Lohrmann, 1975
Box 14 Folder 14
154 - Prebiotic Peptide-Formation in the Solid State. III. Condensation Reactions of Glycine in Solid State Mixtures Containing Inorganic Polyphosphates. With H. Sawai, 1975
Box 14 Folder 15
155 - ß-Structure of Alternating Polypeptides and Their Possible Prebiotic Significance. With André Brack, 1975
Box 14 Folder 16
156 - Prebiotic Polynucleotides and Polypeptides, 1975
Box 14 Folder 17
158 - N,N-Carbonyldiimidazole-Induced Peptide Formation in Aqueous Solution. With K.W. Ehler, 1976
Box 14 Folder 18
159 - Polymerization of Nucleotide Analogues. I. Reaction of Nucleoside 5'-Phosphorimidazolides with 2'-Amino-2'-Dexoyuridine. With R. Lohrmann, 1976
Box 14 Folder 19
160 - Template-Directed Synthesis of High Molecular-Weight Polynucleotide Analogues. With R. Lohrmann, 1976
Box 14 Folder 20
161 - Triple Helices Formed by Polyuridylic Acid with Some Amino Deoxyadenosine Derivatives. With Don E. Gibbs, 1976
Box 14 Folder 21
162 - Search for Organic and Volatile Inorganic Compounds in Two Surface Samples from the Chryse Planitia of Mars, 1976
Box 14 Folder 22
163 - N,N-Carbonyldiimidazole-Induced Deketopiperazine Formation in Aqueous Solution in the Presence of Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate. With A. Brack and K.W. Ehler, 1976
Box 14 Folder 23
164 - Some 5'-Azido and 5'-Amino-2'-Deoxyribonucleosides, Their 3'-Phosphates, and Their 3"-Phosphoimidazolides. With Don E. Gibbs, 1976
Box 14 Folder 24
165 - Reactions of Polyfunctional Amino Acids with N',N'-Carbonyldiimidazole in Aqueous Solution - Oligopeptide Formation. With K.W. Ehler and E. Girard, 1977
Box 15 Folder 1
166 - ß-Turns and the Evolution of Protein Synthesis, 1977
Box 15 Folder 2
167 - Reactions of Adenosine 5'-Phosphorimidazolide with Adenosine Analogues on a Polyuridylic Acid Template: The Uniqueness of the ß-Riboside. With R. Lohrmann, 1977
Box 15 Folder 3
168 - Template-Directed Reactions of Aminonucleosides. With R. Lohrmann, 1977
Box 15 Folder 4
169 - Gene-Duplication and the Origin of Proteins with Novel Functions, 1977
Box 15 Folder 5
170 - The Search for Organic Substances and Inorganic Volatile Compounds in the Surface of Mars. With K. Biemann, et al, 1977
Box 15 Folder 6
171 - Template-Directed Polynucleotide Condensation as a Model for RNA Replication. With R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box 15 Folder 7
172 - Preferential Formation of (2'-5')-Linked Internucleotide Bonds in Non-Enzymatic Reactions. With R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box 15 Folder 8
173 - Formation of P1,P2-Dinucleoside 5'-Pyrophosphates Under Potentially Prebiological Conditions. With R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box 15 Folder 9
174 - Amino Acid Activation with Adenosine 5'-Phosphorimidazole. With A.L. Weber, 1978
Box 15 Folder 10
175 - Phosphorylation of Nucleosides in Aqueous Solution Using Trimetaphosphate: Formation of Nucleoside Triphosphate. With Elisabeth Etaix, 1978
Box 15 Folder 11
176 - Formation of the Imidazolides of Dinucleotides Under Potentially Prebiotic Conditions. With H.L. Sleeper and R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box 15 Folder 12
177 - The Formation of Peptides from the 2'(3')-Glycyl Ester of a Nucleotide. With Arthur L. Weber, 1978
Box 15 Folder 13
178 - Heteropolynucleotides as Templates for Non-Enzymatic Polymerizations. With J. Ninio, 1978

A prior version titled "Template-Directed Condensation in Oligoadenylic Acids" is located in Series 3B.

Box 15 Folder 14
179 - Studies of Oligoadenylate Formation on a Poly(U) Template. With R. Lohrmann, 1979
Box 15 Folder 15
180 - The Catalysis of Nucleotide Polymerization by Compounds of Divalent Lead. With H.L. Sleeper, 1979
Box 15 Folder 16
181 - Selection in vitro, 1979
Box 15 Folder 17
182 - The Formation of Dipeptides from Amino Acids and the 2'(3')-Glycyl Ester of an Adenylate. With Arthur L. Weber, 1979
Box 15 Folder 18
183 - The Formation of Peptides from Glycine Thioesters. With Arthur L. Weber, 1979
Box 15 Folder 19
184 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoadenylates Catalyzed by Pb2+ Ions. With H.L. Sleeper and R. Lohrmann, 1979
Box 15 Folder 20
185 - Self-Condensation of Activated Dinucleotides on Polynucleotide Templates with Alternating Sequences. With R. Lohrmann, 1979
Box 16 Folder 1-3
186 - Selfish DNA: The Ultimate Parasite. With F.H.C. Crick, 1980
Box 16 Folder 4
188 - Efficient Metal-Ion Catalyzed Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Synthesis. With R. Lohrmann, 1980
Box 16 Folder 5
189 - Template-Directed Synthesis and Selective Adsorption of Oligoadenylates on Hydroxyapatite. With D. Gibbs and R. Lohrmann, 1980
Box 16 Folder 6
190 - Poly(U)-Directed Peptide-Bond Formation from the 2'(3')-Glycyl Ester of Adenosine Derivatives. With Arthur L. Weber, 1980
Box 16 Folder 7
191 - Efficient Catalysis of Poly(C)-Directed Oligoguanylate Formation by Pb2+. With R. Lohrmann, 1980
Box 16 Folder 8
192 - Catalysis of Accurate Poly(C)-Directed Synthesis of 3'-5'-Linked Oligoguanylates by Zn2+. With P.K. Bridson, 1980
Box 16 Folder 9
193 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoguanylic Acids - Metal Ion Catalysis. With P.K. Bridson, et al, 1981
Box 16 Folder 10
194 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoguanylates in the Presence of Metal Ions. With J.H.G. van Roode, 1980
Box 16 Folder 11
196 - The Effect of Poly(C) on the Formation of Peptide Bonds from the 2'(3')-Gycyl Ester of a Guanosine Nucleotide. With Arthur L. Weber, 1981
Box 16 Folder 12
197 - The Synthesis of Oligoguanylates on Oligocytidylate Templates. With H. Fakhrai and J.H.G. van Roode, 1981
Box 16 Folder 13
198 - Condensation of Activated Diguanylates on a Poly(C) Template. With R. Lohrmann and P.K. Bridson, 1981
Box 16 Folder 14
199 - Substituent Control of the Poly(C)-Directed Oligomerization of Guanosine 5'-Phosphoroimidazolide. With Tan Inoue, 1981
Box 16 Folder 15
200 - Template Directed Reactions of 2-Aminoadenylic Acid Derivatives. With Thomas R. Webb, 1982
Box 16 Folder 16
201 - Oligomerization of (Guanosine 5'-Phosphor)-2-Methylimidazolide on Poly(C): An RNA Polymerase Model. With T. Inoue, 1982
Box 16 Folder 17
202 - Darwinism At the Very Beginning of Life, 1982
Box 16 Folder 18
203 - A Non-Enzymatic RNA Polymerase Model, 1983
Box 16 Folder 19
204 - The Origin of Life and the Evolution of Macromolecules, 1983
Box 17 Folder 1
205 - Derivation of Unprotected Polynucleotides. With Barbara C.F. Chu and Geoffrey M. Wahl, 1983
Box 17 Folder 2
206 - Temperature-Dependence of the Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoguanylates. With Habib Fakhrai and Tan Inoue, 1984
Box 17 Folder 3
207 - Preparation of Ligation Intermediates and Related Polynucleotide Pyrophosphates. With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1984
Box 17 Folder 4
208 - Non-Enzymatic Template-Directed Synthesis on RNA Random Copolymers. I. Poly(CU) Templates. With G.F. Joyce and T. Inoue, 1984
Box 17 Folder 5
209 - Chiral Selection in Poly(C)-Directed Synthesis of Oligo(G). With G.F. Joyce, et al, 1984
Box 17 Folder 6
210 - Template-Directed Synthesis on the Pentanucleotide CpCpGpCpC. With T. Inoue, et al, 1984
Box 17 Folder 7
211 - Template-Directed Synthesis with 2-Aminoadenosine. With Kazimierz Grzeskowiak and Thomas R. Webb, 1984
Box 17 Folder 8
212 - Non-Enzymatic Sequence-Specific Cleavage of Single-Stranded DNA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Adduct/Oligodeoxynucleotide/Hybridization). With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1985
Box 17 Folder 9
213 - Oligomerization of Activated Derivatives of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxyguanosine on Poly(C) and Poly(dC) Templates. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1985
Box 17 Folder 10
214 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligodeoxycytidylate and Polydeoxycytidylate Templates. With C.B. Chen and T. Inoue, 1980
Box 17 Folder 11
215 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Novel, Nucleic Acid-Like Structures. With Alan W. Schwartz, 1985
Box 17 Folder 12
217 - Template-Directed Polynucleotide Synthesis on Mineral Surfaces. With Alan W. Schwartz, 1985

Letter to the editor.

Box 17 Folder 13
218 - Detection of Specific DNA Sequences with Short Biotin-Labeled Probes. With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1985
Box 18 Folder 1
220 - Template-Directed Synthesis on the Oligonucleotide d(C7-G-C7). With Tomasz Haertle, 1986
Box 18 Folder 2
221 - Non-Enzymatic Template-Directed Synthesis on RNA Random Copolymers: Poly(C,G) Templates. With G.F. Joyce, 1986
Box 18 Folder 3
222 - The Template Properties of Some Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Cytidine and Guanosine. With Tomasz Haertle, 1986
Box 18 Folder 4
223 - Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Ligation on Hydroxylapatite: An Analogue of Solid Phase Synthesis. with Oscar L. Acevedo, 1986
Box 18 Folder 5
224 - Synthesis of an Amplifiable Reporter RNA for Bioassays. With Barbara C.F. Chu and Fred Russell Kramer, 1986
Box 18 Folder 6
225 - Molecular Replication and the Origins of Life, 1986
Box 18 Folder 7
226 - Template-Directed Synthesis on Short Oligoribocytidylates. With Kazimierz Grzeskowiak, 1986
Box 18 Folder 8
227 - How Mistakes Are Made. Review of Accuracy in Molecular Processes: Its Control and Relevance in Living Systems (T.B.L. Kirkwood, R.F. Rosenberger and D.J. Galas, editors, 1986), 1986
Box 18 Folder 9
228 - Did Template-Directed Nucleation Precede Molecular Replication?, 1986
Box 18 Folder 10-11
229 - RNA Catalysis and the Origins of Life, 1986
Box 18 Folder 12
230 - Oligoaminonucleoside Phosphoramidates. Oligomerization of Dimers of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxynucleotides (GC and CG) in Aqueous Solution. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1987
Box 18 Folder 13
231 - The Action of a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide on Adenosine-5'--Polyphosphates. With Kam-mui Eva Ng, 1987
Box 19 Folder 1
232 - Autocatalytic Synthesis of a Tetranucleotide Analogue. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1987
Box 19 Folder 2
233 - Oligomerization of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxyguanosine-5'-Phosphorimidazolidate on a d(CpCpCpCpC) Template. With Mary Tohidi, et al
Box 19 Folder 3
234 - The Case for an Ancestral Genetic System Involving Simple Analogues of the Nucleotides. With Gerald F. Joyce, et al, 1987
Box 19 Folder 4
235 - Impressions of the LII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, "The Evolution of Catalytic Function", 1987
Box 19 Folder 5
236 - Non-Enzymatic Transcription of an Oligodeoxynucleotide 14 Residues Long. With Oscar L. Acevedo, 1987
Box 19 Folder 6
237 - Evolution of the Genetic Apparatus: A Review, 1987
Box 19 Folder 7
238 - The Origin of Self-Replicating Molecules, 1987
Box 19 Folder 8
239 - Template-Directed Oligomerization of 3-Isoadenosine 5'-Phosphate. With Aubrey R. Hill, et al, 1988
Box 19 Folder 9
240 - Ligation of Oligonucleotides to Nucleic Acids or Proteins via Disulfide Bonds. With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1988
Box 19 Folder 10
241 - Non-Enzymatic Template-Directed Synthesis on RNA Random Copolymers: Poly(C,A) Templates. With G.F. Joyce, 1988
Box 19 Folder 11
242 - Cyclization of Nucleotide Analogues as an Obstacle to Polymerization. With Aubrey R. Hill, Jr., et al, 1989

Letter to the editor.

Box 19 Folder 12
243 - Some Acyclic Analogues of Nucleotides and Their Template-Directed Reactions. With Mahrokh Tohidi, 1989
Box 19 Folder 13
245 - Reaction on Alternating GC Oligonucleotide Templates. With K-m. E. Ng, 1989
Box 19 Folder 14
246 - Replacement of the 3'-CH Group by Nitrogen in the Carbocylic Analogue of Thymidine. With Kam-mui Eva Ng, 1989
Box 19 Folder 15
247 - Was RNA the First Genetic Polymer?, 1989
Box 20 Folder 1
248 - Template Properties of Tetranucleoside Triphosphoramidates Having Cytosine-Guanosine Residues. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1989
Box 20 Folder 2
249 - Polymerization of a Monomeric Guanosine Derivative in a Hydrogen-Bonded Aggregate, 1989
Box 20 Folder 3
250 - The Origin of Polynucleotide-Directed Protein Synthesis, 1989
Box 20 Folder 4
251 - Polymerization of the Cyclic Pyrophosphates on Nucleosides and Their Analogues. With Mahrokh Tohidi, 1990
Box 20 Folder 5
251A - Nucleic Acids: Adding to the Genetic Alphabet, 1990
Box 20 Folder 6
252 - A Simple Procedure for Cross-Linking Complementary Oligonucleotides. With B.C.F. Chu, 1990
Box 20 Folder 7
253 - Polymerization of Amino Acids Containing Nucleotide Bases. With Azzouz Ben Cheikh, 1990
Box 20 Folder 8
255 - Blunt-End and Single-Strand Ligation by Escherichia coli Ligase: Influence on an In Vitro Amplification Scheme. With Kevin J. Barringer, et al, 1990
Box 20 Folder 9
257 - Synthesis of 5'-Deoxy-5'-Nucleosideacetic Acid Derivatives. With Kazuo Harada, 1990
Box 20 Folder 10
258 - Pyrophosphate-Formation As the Most Efficient Condensation Reaction of Activated Nucleotides. With Libaniel Rodriguez, 1991
Box 20 Folder 11
259 - Disulfide-Linked Oligonucleotide Phosphorothioates: Novel Analogues of Nucleic Acids. With Taifeng Wu, 1991
Box 20 Folder 12
260 - Acceleration of the Template-Directed Reactions of Nucleoside 5'-Phosphorimidazolides by Acylation. With Libaniel Rodriguez, 1991
Box 20 Folder 13
261 - The Cyclization of Arabinosyladenine-5'-Phosphorimidazolide. With Kazuo Harada, 1991
Box 20 Folder 14
262 - Which 3-Ribofuranosyl-Substituted Purine 5'-Phosphates Undergo Template-Directed Oligomerization? With Aubrey R. Hill, Jr., et al, 1991
Box 20 Folder 15
263 - Template-Directed Extension of a Guanosine 5'-Phosphate Covalently Attached to an Oligodeoxycytidylate Template. With Libaniel Rodriguez, 1991
Box 20 Folder 16
264 - Photooxidation of Oligodeoxynucleotides by UO22+. With Aubrey R. Hill, Jr., 1991
Box 21 Folder 1
265 - An Efficient Sequence-Specific Method for Crosslinking Complementary Oligonucleotides Using Binuclear Platinum Complexes. With Eric S. Gruff, 1991

Unpublished

Box 21 Folder 2
Existence of Self-Reproducing Units, 1964 - 1965
Box 21 Folder 3
Oligomerization of Dimers of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxynucleotides Having Complementary AC and GU Sequences. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1988
Box 21 Folder 4
Poly(dC) as a Template for Non-Enzymatic Oligo(G) Synthesis. With Tan Inoue
Box 21 Folder 5
Polymerization of a Monomeric Guanosine Derivative in a Hydrogen Bonded Aggregate. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1988
Box 21 Folder 6-7
Template-Directed Condensation of Oligoadenylic Acids. With Jacques Ninio, 1976 - 1977

The published version of this paper is located in Series 3A: 178 - Heteropolynucleotides as Templates for Non-Enzymatic Polymerizations.

Box 21 Folder 8
Thermal Synthesis of Oligourdylates at Moderate Temperatures. With Ragnar Osterberg and Rolf Lohrmann

CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS

Scope and Content of Series

SERIES 4) CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS: Correspondence, proposals, contracts, figures, and budget information for Orgel's research projects. Arranged by sponsoring agency in four subseries: A) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), B) National Institutes of Health (NIH), C) National Science Foundation (NSF), and D) U.S. Army.

A) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): Includes materials on the photochemical generation of prebiotic condensing agents, molecular analysis for the 1975 Viking Mars Lander missions, and RNA polymerase models.

B) National Institutes of Health (NIH): Includes Orgel's research projects on the evolution of genetic specificity and nucleic acid analogs.

C) National Science Foundation (NSF): Research projects in prebiotic chemistry, biochemical evolution, and template-directed synthesis.

D) U.S. Army: A research proposal for sequence-specific inactivation of m-RNA.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Box 21 Folder 9-10
Photochemical Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1965 - 1969
Box 21 Folder 11-12
Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1970 - 1971
Box 21 Folder 13
Participation in the Science Planning for the Viking 1975 Missions in the Area of Molecular Analysis, 1970
Box 22 Folder 1-2
Participation in the Science Planning for the Viking 1975 Missions in the Area of Molecular Analysis, 1971 - 1980
Box 22 Folder 3-12
Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1972 - 1984
Box 22 Folder 13
RNA Polymerase Models, 1982
Box 23 Folder 1-4
Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1985 - 1988
Box 23 Folder 5
Prebiotic Template-Directed Synthesis, 1985

National Institutes of Health

Box 23 Folder 6-7
Evolution of Genetic Specificity, 1965 - 1968
Box 23 Folder 8
Nucleic Acid Analogs - Synthesis and Chemotherapy, 1971 - 1974
Box 24 Folder 1-4
Evolution of Genetic Specificity, 1975 - 1987

National Science Foundation

Box 24 Folder 5-6
Study of Biochemical Evolution, 1964 - 1969
Box 24 Folder 7
Prebiotic Activation of Amino Acids and Nucleotide Bases, 1973 - 1978
Box 25 Folder 1
Prebiotic Formation of Peptide Bonds, 1978 - 1979
Box 25 Folder 2
A Non-Classical System of Template-Directed Synthesis, 1981 - 1983
Box 25 Folder 3-5
Template-Directed Synthesis with 3'-Amino 3'-Deoxynucleotides, 1982 - 1989

United States Army

Box 25 Folder 6
Sequence-Specific Inactivation of m-RNA, 1985 - 1986

CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS

Scope and Content of Series

Series 5) CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS: Correspondence, programs, speaker lists, notes, and drafts of talks given by Orgel at scientific conferences, symposia, and seminars. Includes lists of meetings that Orgel attended. Arranged chronologically.

Box 25 Folder 7
Lists of meetings attended: 1975-1977, 1981-1985
Box 25 Folder 8
First Soviet American Conference on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI). Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1971 September 5-11

1967 October 20: A series of "Telesnaps" photographs from a British Broadcasting Corporation program, numbered.

Box 25 Folder 9
Quatrième Conférence Internationale de la Physique Théorique à la Biologie. Paris, 1973 May 28

Includes correspondence in French.

Box 25 Folder 10
Some Aspects of Pre-Biotic Chemistry - Some Theories of Ageing (and the Evidence). Cornell University Special Lectures, 1975 February 27-28
Box 25 Folder 11
Symposium on Nucleic Acid Replication. Montebello, Québec, 1975 March 2-7
Box 25 Folder 12
Fourth Annual Workshop on the Biology of Aging - Perspectives in Theories of Biological. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1975 March 23-25
Box 25 Folder 13
Polymerization and Polycondensation on Clays - Their Role in Abiotic Synthesis and the Origin of Life. Polytechnic Institute of New York, 1975 May 23
Box 26 Folder 1-2
European Molecular Biology Organization workshop, Barcelona, 1975 May 26-28

Contains letters by Carl Sagan (1/17/75) and Severo Ochoa (11/21/74).

Box 26 Folder 3
Viking Science Symposium on Earth and Mars - The Role of Life, Kennedy Space Center, 1975 August 7-11
Box 26 Folder 4
Prebiotic Synthesis of Nucleotides and Polynucleotides, Ames Research Center, 1975 August 13
Box 26 Folder 5
Chemistry Colloquium, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 1975 October 22
Box 26 Folder 6
Evans Lecture, Ohio State University Chemistry Department, 1975 October 24
Box 26 Folder 7
Towards Self-Replicating Molecules. Texas A and M University, College of Agriculture, 1975 October 28
Box 26 Folder 8
Robert A. Welch Foundation Conferences on Chemical Research. XIX: Photon Chemistry, Houston, 1975 October 29-31
Box 26 Folder 9
Bio-Cultural Concepts of Man, Fullerton College, 1975 November 19
Box 26 Folder 10
Discussion Colloquium on the Biology of Religion. Institute for Higher Studies, Santa Barbara, 1975 December 3-4
Box 26 Folder 11
Gordon Research Conference on the Biology of Aging, Santa Barbara, 1976 January 25-30
Box 26 Folder 12
Lectures on Chemical Evolution. Stanford University Medical Center, 1976 February 6
Box 26 Folder 13
Science and Our Expectations - Bicentennial and Beyond. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, 1976 February 18-24

Contains letter by Carl Sagan (10/17/75).

Box 26 Folder 14
Viking Molecular Analysis Team. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, 1976 March 18-19
Box 26 Folder 15
Genetics Seminar, Salk Institute - Origin of Self-Replicating Material, 1976 April 6
Box 26 Folder 16
Viking Project. Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Viking Flight Team Memorandum, 1976 April 9-10
Box 26 Folder 17
Renaud Lectures. Michigan State University, Department of Biochemistry, 1976 April 19-20
Box 26 Folder 18
Organization and Expression of the Eukaryotic Genome, Portsmouth, U.K., 1976 May 3-6
Box 26 Folder 19
Langley Colloquium Series, Hampton, Virginia, 1976 June 28
Box 26 Folder 20
Present State of Viking Data. MIT Department of Chemistry, 1977 January 10-12
Box 26 Folder 21
Institute for Higher Studies seminar - A Fifty Year View, Santa Barbara, 1977 January 20-22
Box 26 Folder 22
United States Information Agency. Viking Science Tour, Paris, 1977 March 3-4:
Box 26 Folder 23
New Trends in Geriatric Care. UC San Diego School of Medicine, 1977 March 14
Box 26 Folder 24
Molecules and Evolution. International Lectures on Human, Global and Universal Problems. University of Stockholm, 1977 April 19-20
Box 26 Folder 25
Origin of Self-Replicating Molecules. California State University, Los Angeles, 1977 March 29
Box 26 Folder 26
Origins of Life Festival. University of Oregon, Institute of Molecular Biology, 1977 May 16
Box 26 Folder 27
Viking Science Steering Group meeting, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1977 June 28-29
Box 26 Folder 28
Current Biological Problems - A School for Physical Scientists, Seattle, 1977 July 15-16
Box 26 Folder 29
International Summer School on Genome Organization and Function, Spetsai, Greece, 1977 August 21 - September 3
Box 26 Folder 30
Seminar - California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, 1977 October 17
Box 26 Folder 31
A Conversation About the Origins of Life. Friends of the International Center, UC San Diego, 1977 November 8
Box 27 Folder 1
Seminar series, California State University, Long Beach, Department of Chemistry, 1977 November 16
Box 27 Folder 2
Science seminar, San Diego City College, Department of Chemistry, 1977 December 1
Box 27 Folder 3
Meeting of the Royal Society, London, 1978 December 6-7
Box 27 Folder 4
Conference on Selforganization in Living Systems, Drubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1979 August 26-31
Box 27 Folder 5
The Evolution of Life - A Public Symposium, Toronto, 1979 October 25-26
Box 27 Folder 6
Fifth Science Workshop on the Origins of Life, Los Angeles, 1980 January 17-18
Box 27 Folder 7
American Institute of Biological Sciences. Planetary Biology Advisory Panel, Arlington, Virginia, 1980 February 4-5
Box 27 Folder 8
Prebiotic Chemistry - Nucleic Acids and the Origin of Self-Replication, UC Los Angeles, 1980 April 18
Box 27 Folder 9
Science Workshops on the Origins of Life, Rockefeller University, New York, 1980 April 24-25
Box 27 Folder 10
Monsanto Company Technical Management Conference - New Technology Horizons, St. Louis, 1980 May 20-21
Box 27 Folder 11
Workshop on Molecular Evolution and Function of Three Dimensional Structure in Nucleic Acids and Proteins, University of Stockholm, 1980 June 16-17
Box 27 Folder 12
International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life Conference, Jerusalem, 1980 June 23-27
Box 27 Folder 13
Pomona College Dreyfus Seminar Series, Claremont, 1980 September 25
Box 27 Folder 14
Seminar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1980 September 30
Box 27 Folder 15
Caltech Centennial Symposium - The Chemical Bond Structure and Dynamics, Pasadena, 1981 February 28
Box 27 Folder 16
Towards an RNA Polymerase Model, UC Los Angeles School of Medicine, 1981 March 4
Box 27 Folder 17
Contemporary Issues Undergraduate Seminar. Origins of Life in the Ocean? UC San Diego, 1981 March 31
Box 27 Folder 18
Genome Evolution and Phenotype Variation. University of Cambridge Genome Meeting, 1981 June 22-24
Box 27 Folder 19
Dalhousie Symposium on the Evolution of the Eukaryotic Genome and Its Components, Halifax, 1981 July 12-15
Box 27 Folder 20
Organizing and planning meeting for Workshops on Exobiology in the Exploration of the Solar System, Ames Research Center, 1981 August 3-4
Box 27 Folder 21
European Molecular Biology Organization Workshop on Accuracy, Grignon, France, 1981 September 1-6
Box 27 Folder 22
Max Planck Institute, Göttingen, 1981 September 6-9
Box 27 Folder 23
California Catalysis Society fall meeting, La Jolla, 1981 October 24-25
Box 27 Folder 24
Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution - Space Science Board, Washington, D.C., 1981 December 7-8
Box 27 Folder 25
Workshop on Exobiology in Solar System Exploration, Ames Research Center, 1981 December 9-11
Box 27 Folder 26
City of Hope Research Institute seminar, Duarte, California, 1982 February 2
Box 27 Folder 27
Gordon Conference on Metals in Biology, Ventura, 1982 February 8-12
Box 27 Folder 28
Biophysical/Physical Chemistry seminar. UC Berkeley Chemistry Department, 1982 March 16
Box 27 Folder 29
Life Sciences Advisory Committee meeting. Exobiology Program review, Ames Research Center, 1982 March 20
Box 27 Folder 30
Space Science Board. Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, Santa Barbara, 1982 March 25-28
Box 27 Folder 31
Exobiology Program review, NASA Life Sciences Advisory Committee, Ames Research Center, 1982 April 12
Box 27 Folder 32
Origin and Evolution of Life. Tufts University, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Boston, 1982 April 28
Box 27 Folder 33
Committee on Space Science Research, 24th plenary meeting - Chemical Evolution and the Origins of Life, Ottawa, 1982 May 17-June 3
Box 28 Folder 1
Darwin Centenary Conference. Cambridge, UK, 1982 June 27-July 2
Box 28 Folder 2
Gordon Conference on the Origin of Life, New London, NH, 1982 July 19-23
Box 28 Folder 3
First Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life, Ames Research Center, 1982 August 2-4
Box 28 Folder 4
The Past, Present and Future of Genetics. Brno, Czechoslovakia, 1982 August 26-September 1
Box 28 Folder 5
Nobel Symposium on Inorganic Biochemistry, Sweden, 1982 September 5-10
Box 28 Folder 6
U.S.-Japan Cooperative Seminar on Pathogenic Mechanisms in Werner's Syndrome and Their Role in Human Aging, Kobe, 1982 December 10-12
Box 28 Folder 7
Gerontology Research Center Seminar. A Non-Enzymatic RNA Polymerase Model, Baltimore, 1983 February 22
Box 28 Folder 8
Space Science Board, Committee on Planetary Biology, Washington, D.C., 1983 February 23-25
Box 28 Folder 9
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science and Engineering - Toward a National Renaissance, Detroit, 1983 May 26-31
Box 28 Folder 10
7th International Conference on the Origins of Life and 4th Meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life, Mainz, Germany, 1983 July 10-15
Box 28 Folder 11
Third Workshop on Exobiology in Solar System Exploration, Ames Research Center, 1983 August 25-26
Box 28 Folder 12
Conference on Biomaterials, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, MA, 1983 September 19-20
Box 28 Folder 13
Attempts to Imitate RNA Polymerase, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1983 October 14
Box 28 Folder 14
Attempts to Develop a Nonenzymatic RNA Polymerase. California State University, Los Angeles, 1983 October 18
Box 28 Folder 15
Pacific Conference on Chemistry and Spectroscopy. Origin of Life Symposium, Pasadena, 1983 October 26-28
Box 28 Folder 16
Organization, Replication and Evolution of Early Macromolecules, Orléans, France, 1985 February 7
Box 28 Folder 17
Chemische Gesellschaft Zürich, 1985 February 13
Box 28 Folder 18
City of Hope, Duarte, CA, 1985 April 12
Box 28 Folder 19
Primary Structure Conformation and Evolution of Nucleic Acids and Proteins. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, 1985 May 2-4

Includes photograph of Giorgio Bernardi.

Box 28 Folder 20
Fourth Conversation in the Discipline - Biomolecular Stereodynamics. State University of New York at Albany, 1985 June 4-8
Box 28 Folder 21
2nd Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life, Ames Research Center, 1985 July 23-26
Box 28 Folder 22
Niels Bohr Centenary Symposium, Copenhagen, 1985 October 4-7
Box 28 Folder 23
Symposium on the Origin of Life, Caltech, Pasadena, 1985 October 14-15

Contains photograph of birthday cake, "70 Happy Birthday Norm 70."

Box 28 Folder 24
Seminar program. University of California, Davis, Department of Zoology, 1985 November 12
Box 28 Folder 25
Annual meeting of the Gerontology Society of America, New Orleans, 1985 November 22-26
Box 28 Folder 26
Bureau of Biological Research 50th Anniversary Symposium - A Molecular View of Evolution. Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 1986 May 15
Box 28 Folder 27
22nd Winter Seminar on Molecules, Information and Memory, Klosters, Switzerland, 1987 January 18-30
Box 28 Folder 28
Biochemistry Department lecture series. University of California, Berkeley, 1987 February 17
Box 28 Folder 29
Western Winter Workshop on the Evolution of Genes and Genomes, Lake Tahoe, 1987 March 4-7
Box 28 Folder 30
General Biology Seminar. California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, 1987 April 28
Box 28 Folder 31
Significance of Chemical Templates in Studies on the Origin of Life. University of Toledo, 1987 May 4
Box 28 Folder 32
Evolution of Catalytic Function, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1987 May 27-June 3

Includes correspondence from James Watson.

Box 29 Folder 1
Symposium on the Bioorganic Chemistry of Enzymes and Nucleic Acids, Bellingham, WA, 1987 June 18-19
Box 29 Folder 2
Space Life Sciences Symposium. Three Decades of Life Science Research in Space, Washington, D.C., 1987 June 21-26
Box 29 Folder 3
Gordon Conference on the Origins of Life, Concord, NH, 1987 August 17-21
Box 29 Folder 4
Artificial Life - an Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Los Alamos, 1987 September 21-25
Box 29 Folder 5
The Frontiers of Tomorrow in Biology, Hyderabad, 1987 November 19-26
Box 29 Folder 6
Gunter Sachs postdoctoral winter symposium. Genes and Development, La Jolla, 1988 January 14-15
Box 29 Folder 7
American Academy of Sciences annual meeting, Boston, 1988 February 12-14
Box 29 Folder 8
Royal Netherlands Chemical Society. Biennial symposium of the Organic Division, Wageningen, 1988 April 14-15
Box 29 Folder 9
9th Annual D.G. Davis Memorial Lecture. Molecular Replication and the Origin of Life, University of New Orleans, 1988 April 22
Box 29 Folder 10
Gordon Conference on Enzymes, Coenzymes and Metabolic Pathways, Meriden, NH, 1988 July 4-8
Box 29 Folder 11
International Summer School on Organization and Function of the Eukaryotic Genome, Spetsai, Greece, 1988 September 1-10
Box 29 Folder 12
196th American Chemical Society Meeting and Exposition, Los Angeles, 1988 September 25-30
Box 29 Folder 13
Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligonucleotides. UC Santa Cruz, 1988 October 24
Box 29 Folder 14
Applied Molecular Evolution and the Maturation of the Immune Response, Santa Fe, 1989 March 27-31
Box 29 Folder 15
Ida Bean Visiting Professor Lecture Series. University of Iowa, 1989 April 16-19
Box 29 Folder 16
Storer Life Sciences Symposium - Evolution of the Biosphere, UC Davis, 1989 May 8-11
Box 29 Folder 17
Cold Spring Harbor RNA Processing meeting, 1989 May 17-21
Box 29 Folder 18
6th International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life meeting and 9th International Conference on the Ninth International Conference on the Origin of Life, Prague, 1989 July 3-8
Box 29 Folder 19
25th Winter Seminar on Molecules, Information and Memory, Klosters, Switzerland, 1990 January 21-26
Box 29 Folder 20
Frontiers in Biomedical Research, Rancho Mirage, CA, 1990 February 4-8
Box 29 Folder 21
Lecture Series on Frontiers in Chemistry. Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, 1990 February 9
Box 29 Folder 22
Juan March Foundation Lectures on Molecular Biology, Madrid, 1990 March 5
Box 29 Folder 23
Biology Department seminar, Yale University, 1990 March 28
Box 29 Folder 24
Molecular Biology and the Origin of Life Symposium, Institute for Advanced Studies in Biology, Berkeley, 1990 July 15-18
Box 29 Folder 25
4th Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life, Ames Research Center, 1990 July 24-27
Box 30 Folder 1
Catalytic RNA as an Anti-HIV Agent. Design and Delivery to Cells, San Diego, 1990 October 21-24
Box 30 Folder 2
Structural Biology seminar. UC Berkeley Chemistry Department, 1990 November 19
Box 30 Folder 3
Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, Taos, 1991 February 2-8
Box 30 Folder 4
Tribute to Linus Pauling on his 90th Birthday, Caltech, 1991 February 28
Box 30 Folder 5
Evolution, Göttingen, 1991 April 22
Box 30 Folder 6
Bruno Zimm Symposium. UC San Diego, 1991 May 18
Box 30 Folder 7
American Chemical Society, San Diego Section, 1991 May 29

SUBJECT FILES

Scope and Content of Series

Series 6) SUBJECT FILES: Correspondence, grants, and proposals related to Orgel's and the Salk Institute's research on aging, including a proposed book on aging by Orgel and Robin Holliday; biographical information on Leslie Orgel, Carl Sagan, and John Griffith Stanley; photographs of Mars taken by the Viking Landers; and a sound recording on RNA sequencing. The series also includes correspondence and a table of contents for a proposed book about the RNA Tie Club, a 1950s society of researchers dedicated to understanding the genetic code. Original media is restricted; researchers may request listening copies in advance of their visit.

Box 30 Folder 8-9
Aging - Book on aging

Includes chapter on clonal aging.

Box 30 Folder 10-14
Aging - Correspondence, 1970 - 1981
Box 31 Folder 1-2
Aging - Correspondence , 1973 - 1984

Includes correspondence with publishers.

Box 31 Folder 3-5
Aging - Grants, 1972 - 1983

Includes grants applications to Fritz B. Burns Foundations, McConnell Clark Foundation, and the National Institute of Health.

Box 31 Folder 6-7
Aging - Salk Institute research programs, symposia and workshops, 1973 - 1974
Box 31 Folder 8
Biebricher, Christof, 1972 - 1976
Box 31 Folder 9
Griffith, John Stanley - Correspondence regarding his candidacy for the Royal Society, 1969
Box 31 Folder 10
Mars - Photographs from Viking 1 and 2 Landers, 1976
Box 31 Folder 11
Mulliken, Robert S., 1978 - 1985
Box 31 Folder 12
RNA sequencing - Reel-to-reel audio recording

Restrictions Apply

Box 31 Folder 13
RNA Tie Club - Book materials, 1953 - 1981

Includes correspondence (1953-1962) from George Gamow to James Watson and Alexander Rich. Also includes a detailed table of contents for proposed book.

Box 31 Folder 14
Sagan, Carl, 1991

Correspondence regarding Sagan's nomination to the National Academy of Sciences.

Box 32 Folder 1
University of California, San Diego - Chemistry Department, 1964 - 1980

Correspondence and biographical materials regarding Orgel's academic appointment at UC San Diego.

SALK INSTITUTE

Scope and Content of Series

Series 7) SALK INSTITUTE. Files documenting Orgel's association and interaction with the Salk Institute, arranged in six subseries: A) Chemical Evolution Laboratory, B) Faculty, C) Fellows, D) General, E) Salk Memoranda, and F) Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates.

A) Chemical Evolution Laboratory: Annual scientific reports of the Chemical Evolution Laboratory, 1975-1980.

B) Faculty: Minutes of faculty meetings and senior resident faculty meetings, 1976– 1986.

C) Fellows: Annual reports, correspondence, and meeting minutes of the Fellows Committee, Operating Committee, and Space Committee, 1965–1977

D) General: Reports regarding laboratory and research activities, and staffing and publications, and information on the Sloan grant, 1970-1977.

E) Salk Memoranda: Memoranda from Jacob Bronowski, Frederic De Hoffmann and Edwin Lennox, 1965–1982.

F) Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates: Files related to the commercial development of biotechnology research by Orgel and his associates, 1981-1988.

Chemical Evolution Laboratory

Box 32 Folder 2-4
Annual reports, 1975 - 1980

Faculty

Box 32 Folder 5
Faculty meetings, 1984 - 1986
Box 32 Folder 6
Senior resident faculty meetings, 1976 - 1982

Fellows

Box 32 Folder 7-8
Annual Report of the Director to the Fellows of the Salk Institute, 1971 - 1975
Box 32 Folder 9
Fellows Committee, 1970
Box 32 Folder 10
Operating Committee - Meeting minutes, 1970
Box 33 Folder 1
Resident Members of the Committee of Fellows - Meeting minutes, 1965
Box 33 Folder 2
Space Committee, 1977

General

Box 33 Folder 3
Sloan Grant, 1970
Box 33 Folder 4-5
Report of Laboratory and Research Activities, 1975 - 1977
Box 33 Folder 6
Report on Laboratory Staffing and Publications, 1976

Salk Memoranda

Box 33 Folder 7
Bronowski, Jacob, 1967 - 1974
Box 34 Folder 1-6
De Hoffmann, Frederic, 1970 - 1982
Box 34 Folder 7
Lennox, Edwin L., 1965 - 1974
Box 34 Folder 8
Salk business, 1965 - 1971
Box 35 Folder 1
Salk business, 1972 - 1975

Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates

Box 35 Folder 2
Consultant nonstatutory stock option agreement, 1982
Box 35 Folder 3-8
Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates, Inc. (SIBIA), 1981 - 1986
Box 36 Folder 1-2
Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates, Inc. (SIBIA), 1987 - 1988
Box 36 Folder 3
Board of Trustees - Meeting minutes and by-laws, 1964

Accession Processed in 2018

BIOGRAPHICAL

Scope and Content of Series

Series 8) BIOGRAPHICAL: Biographical information for Leslie Orgel, including his appointment calendars, awards, interview transcripts and employment information for UC San Diego and the Salk Institute.