Leslie Orgel Papers, 1960 - 1991 (MSS 0176)

Access: Referee reports in boxes 37, 38, and 39 are restricted until the death of Leslie Orgel.

Extent: 16.4 Linear feet (39 archives boxes and 1 oversize file folder)

Papers of Leslie Orgel, chemist, molecular biologist and Senior Fellow and Research Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he directs the Chemical Evolution Laboratory. Orgel's research interests include nucleic acid chemistry, molecular evolution, prebiotic chemistry, and problems related to the origin of life. The bulk of the papers dates from 1964 to 1991 and includes correspondence, journal articles, conference and meeting material, contracts and grants, subject files, Salk Institute administrative files, and referee reports. The papers are arranged in eight series: 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL, 2) CORRESPONDENCE, 3) WRITINGS, 4) CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS, 5) CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS, 6) SUBJECT FILES, 7) SALK INSTITUTE, and 8) REFEREE REPORTS.

Leslie Eleazer Orgel was born in London, England, on January 12, 1927. He received his B.A. in chemistry with first class honors from Oxford university in 1949. In 1950 he was elected a Fellow of Magdalen College and in 1951 was awarded his Ph.D in chemistry at Oxford.

Orgel started his career as a theoretical inorganic chemist and continued his studies in this field at Oxford, the California Institute of Technology and the University of Chicago. In 1955 he joined the chemistry department at Cambridge university. There he did work in transition metal chemistry, published articles and wrote a textbook entitled TRANSITION METAL CHEMISTRY: LIGAND FIELD THEORY (1960).

In 1964 Orgel was appointed Senior Fellow and Research Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he directs the Chemical Evolution Laboratory. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego, and he is one of five principal investigators in the NASA-sponsored NSCORT program in exobiology. Orgel also participated in NASA's Viking Mars Lander Program as a member of the Molecular Analysis Team that designed the gas chromatography mass spectrometer instrument.

Orgel's work in the Chemical Evolution Laboratory is in nucleotide chemistry and is mainly concerned with non-enzymatic polymerization reactions that depend on the formation of double-helical complexes between a preformed polynucleotide template and one or more complementary mononucleotide or polynucleotide substrates. In the context of chemical evolution, selected templates are employed to facilitate synthesis of complementary RNA sequences. In other work, oligonucleotide sequences are used to direct reactive molecules (warheads) to a complementary target DNA, so as to cleave a crosslink to the target at a predetermined position. Methods for crosslinking transcription factors irreversibly to their DNA recognition sequences are also being developed. His NASA-sponsored research focuses on the catalysis of nucleic acid replication by mineral surfaces.

Orgel wrote THE ORIGINS OF LIFE: MOLECULES AND NATURAL SELECTION (1970) and co-authored, with Stanley Miller, THE ORIGINS OF LIFE ON THE EARTH (1974). He has published over three hundred articles in his research areas.

Orgel's contributions have been recognized throughout his career. In Britain he was awarded the Harrison Prize in 1957 for his work in inorganic chemistry and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1962. In the United States he received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1971, the Evans Award from Ohio State University in 1975, and the H.C. Urey Medal from the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1990.

The Leslie Orgel Papers document research in nucleic acid chemistry and molecular evolution conducted between 1964 and 1991 at the Chemical Evolution Laboratory of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. The papers contain correspondence, manuscripts of Orgel's books and journal articles, grants and proposals, conference and meeting material, subject files, Salk Institute files, and referee reports written by Orgel.

The papers are arranged in eight series: 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL, 2) CORRESPONDENCE, 3) WRITINGS, 4) CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS, 5) CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS, 6) SUBJECT FILES, 7) SALK INSTITUTE, and 8) REFEREE REPORTS.

SERIES 1: BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL

Arranged alphabetically, the BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL series contains Orgel's annotated wall calendars, newspaper clippings and his application for naturalization as a U.S. citizen.

SERIES 2: CORRESPONDENCE

The CORRESPONDENCE series is arranged in four subseries: A) Outgoing Chronological Files, B) General, C) Scientific, and D) Personal.

A) The Outgoing Chronological Files subseries contains copies of outgoing letters (1964-1991).

B) The General subseries contains correspondence associated with routine laboratory business: letters of inquiry regarding possible employment, correspondence with suppliers, requests for visits, and cordial correspondence. In most cases, the incoming letters are accompanied by outgoing replies. The correspondence is arranged chronologically.

C) The Scientific subseries includes correspondence with colleagues and other scientists regarding scientific and technical issues. The materials are arranged alphabetically by author. Prominent correspondents include F.H.C. Crick, Robin Holliday, Jean-Michel Labouygues, Stanley Miller, Carl Sagan, S.A. Seleznev, and Eugene Wigner.

D) The Personal subseries includes letters to and from friends and correspondence related to personal interests, travel plans and projects.

SERIES 3: WRITINGS

The WRITINGS series is organized in two subseries: A) Published, and B) Unpublished.

A) The Numbered Publications subseries, arranged numerically, largely contains research articles and begins with Orgel's numbered chronological list of publications. The folders contain drafts, final versions, correspondence, redacted referee reports, and reprints. The subseries contains 259 of the 302 listed titles, including the draft and correspondence for his textbook entitled TRANSITION METAL CHEMISTRY: LIGAND FIELD THEORY (1960), the only representative from his work while in England. Also included are materials for his other two books, THE ORIGINS OF LIFE: MOLECULES AND NATURAL SELECTION (1973) and, THE ORIGINS OF LIFE ON THE EARTH (1974) with Stanley L. Miller. Of particular interest are Orgel's files for two collaborative articles with Francis Crick, "Directed Panspermia" (#137) and "Selfish DNA: The Ultimate Parasite" (#186), which contain abundant correspondence.

B) The Unpublished subseries contains titles that do not appear on Orgel's publications list.

SERIES 4: CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS

The series is arranged by sponsoring agency in four subseries: A) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), B) National Institutes of Health (NIH), C) National Science Foundation (NSF), and D) U.S. Army. Within each subseries the materials are arranged chronologically and, in most cases, include a copy of the proposal or contract, correspondence and summary budget information. The NASA series reflects the development of Orgel's long-term research grant entitled "Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents" and his participation in planning for the 1975 Viking Mars Lander mission.

SERIES 5: CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS

The CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS series in arranged chronologically and begins with several summary lists of meetings that Orgel attended. The conference materials include programs, speaker lists and correspondence.

SERIES 6: SUBJECT FILES

The SUBJECT FILES series begins with material associated with Orgel's research interest on the topic of aging, including drafts of a planned, but never published, book written in collaboration with British colleague Robin Holliday, and correspondence files arranged chronologically. Also included are grant files and material reflecting the Salk Institute's research and presentations on aging.

The remaining subject files contain material about several colleagues and correspondence related to a planned book about the history of the groundbreaking group of RNA researchers who belonged to the RNATIECLUB, a mid-1950's society with twenty members dedicated to unraveling the genetic code. Included are photocopies of correspondence (1953-1962) from George Gamow to James Watson and Alexander Rich.

SERIES 7: SALK INSTITUTE

The SALK INSTITUTE series contains files that document Orgel's association and interaction with the Salk Institute and is arranged in six subseries: A) Chemical Evolution Laboratory, B) Faculty, C) Fellows, D) General, E) Salk Memoranda, and F) Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates (SIBIA). Included are numerous reports; memoranda with Jacob Bronowski, Frederic De Hoffman and Edwin Lennox; and, files related to the commercial development of biotechnology research by Orgel and his associates.

SERIES 8: REFEREE REPORTS

The REFEREE REPORTS series contains referee reports by Orgel arranged alphabetically by title of journal or name of agency. Orgel was a referee for BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY, the JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION, the JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY, and the National Science Foundation.

Referee reports are restricted until the death of Leslie Orgel.

Container List

Accession Processed in 2006

BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL

Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL: Orgel's annotated wall calendars, newspaper clippings, and his application for naturalization as a U.S. citizen. Arranged alphabetically.

Oversize: FB-208 Folder: 1
Calendars, 1982 - 1991
Box: 1 Folder: 1
Newspaper clippings, 1967 - 1973
Box: 1 Folder: 2
United States Department of Justice. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Application for naturalization, 1989

CORRESPONDENCE

Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) CORRESPONDENCE: Orgel's incoming and outgoing professional and personal correspondence. Arranged in four subseries: A) Outgoing Chronological Files, B) General, C) Scientific, and D) Personal.

A) Outgoing Chronological Files: Copies of outgoing letters from 1964 to 1991.

B) General: Correspondence associated with routine laboratory business: letters of inquiry regarding possible employment, correspondence with suppliers, requests for visits, and cordial correspondence. In most cases, the incoming letters are accompanied by outgoing replies. Arranged chronologically.

C) Scientific: Correspondence with colleagues and other scientists regarding scientific and technical issues, arranged alphabetically by author. Prominent correspondents include Francis Crick, Robin Holliday, Jean-Michel Labouygues, Stanley Miller, Carl Sagan, S.A. Seleznev, and Eugene Wigner. Arranged alphabetically by surname or corporate name.

D) Personal: Letters to and from friends and correspondence related to personal interests, travel plans and projects. Arranged chronologically.

Outgoing Chronological Files

Box: 1 Folder: 3-6
Correspondence, 1964 - 1965
Box: 2 Folder: 1-12
Correspondence, 1966 - 1976
Box: 3 Folder: 1-11
Correspondence, 1977 - 1983
Box: 4 Folder: 1-10
Correspondence, 1983 - 1987
Box: 5 Folder: 1-8
Correspondence, 1987 - 1991
Box: 6 Folder: 1
Correspondence, 1991

General

Box: 6 Folder: 2-7
Correspondence, 1964 - 1989

Scientific

Box: 7 Folder: 1
A - Miscellaneous
Box: 7 Folder: 2
Altman, Sidney, 1984
Box: 7 Folder: 3
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1973 - 1979
Box: 7 Folder: 4
American Journal of Human Genetics, 1978 - 1980

David E. Comings, editor.

Box: 7 Folder: 5
American Scientist, 1973 - 1979
Box: 7 Folder: 6
Arrhenius, Gustaf, 1974 - 1984
Box: 7 Folder: 7
Associated Scientific Publishers, 1973

F. Suater, Dept. managing director.

Box: 7 Folder: 8
Avracmides, George, 1982
Box: 7 Folder: 9-10
B - Miscellaneous
Box: 7 Folder: 11
Balasubramanian, R., 1983
Box: 7 Folder: 12
Baltscheffsky, Herrick, 1977 - 1978
Box: 7 Folder: 13
Ben-Nun, Akiva, 1971 - 1976
Box: 7 Folder: 14
Botkin, Daniel B., 1982 - 1983
Box: 7 Folder: 15
Brack, Andre, 1977 - 1982
Box: 7 Folder: 16
British Broadcasting Corporation, 1976 - 1980
Box: 7 Folder: 17
C - Miscellaneous
Box: 7 Folder: 18
Carmell, L., 1974
Box: 7 Folder: 19
Comfort, Alex, 1973 - 1978
Box: 7 Folder: 20
Crick, Francis H.C., 1965 - 1974
Box: 7 Folder: 21
D - Miscellaneous
Box: 7 Folder: 22
Danielli, James F., 1974 - 1980
Box: 7 Folder: 23
Dickerson, Richard E., 1979 - 1981
Box: 7 Folder: 24
Dyson, Freeman, 1981
Box: 8 Folder: 1
E - Miscellaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 2
Eirich, F.R., 1984
Box: 8 Folder: 3
Encyclopedia of Ignorance (Miranda Weston-Smith), 1974 - 1979
Box: 8 Folder: 4
Eschenmoser, A., 1966
Box: 8 Folder: 5
F - Miscellaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 6
Ferris, James P., 1969 - 1983
Box: 8 Folder: 7
G - Miscellaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 8
Galas, David J., 1973 - 1980
Box: 8 Folder: 9
Gallant, Jonathan A., 1977
Box: 8 Folder: 10
Gould, Stephen Jay, 1981
Box: 8 Folder: 11
Granada Television Limited (Jack Smith, executive producer), 1979 - 1980
Box: 8 Folder: 12
H - Miscellaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 13
Hendry, Lawrence B., 1981 - 1983
Box: 8 Folder: 14
Holliday, Robin, 1964 - 1978

See also Series 6: Aging.

Box: 8 Folder: 15
Horowitz, N.H., 1970 - 1984
Box: 8 Folder: 16
I - Miscellaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 17
Idiot papers and comments, 1964 - 1979
Box: 8 Folder: 18
International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life, 1989
Box: 8 Folder: 19
J - Miscallaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 20
K - Miscellaneous
Box: 8 Folder: 21
Kendrew, John C., 1967 - 1975
Box: 8 Folder: 22
Khorana, Gobind H., 1969 - 1978
Box: 9 Folder: 1
Kornberg, Arthur, 1968 - 1981
Box: 9 Folder: 2
L - Miscellaneous
Box: 9 Folder: 3
Labouygues, Jean-Michel, 1974 - 1982
Box: 9 Folder: 4
Lagerkvist, Ulf, 1977 - 1979
Box: 9 Folder: 5
Lasser, David, 1981 - 1982

Includes interview with Orgel.

Box: 9 Folder: 6
Leonard, Nelson, 1988 - 1989
Box: 9 Folder: 7
M - Miscellaneous
Box: 9 Folder: 8
Mandell, Arnold J., 1981 - 1982
Box: 9 Folder: 9
Michelson, A.M., 1967 - 1968
Box: 9 Folder: 10
Miles, Todd, 1971 - 1983
Box: 9 Folder: 11
Miller, Stanley L., 1975 - 1983
Box: 9 Folder: 12
Monod, Jacques, 1963 - 1973
Box: 9 Folder: 13
N - Miscellaneous
Box: 9 Folder: 14
National Academy of Sciences, 1990
Box: 9 Folder: 15
Nature (Elizabeth Hughes, publisher), 1981
Box: 9 Folder: 16
Neurologische Klinik der Universität, 1974 - 1975
Box: 9 Folder: 17
Ninio, Jacques, 1974 - 1981
Box: 9 Folder: 18
O - Miscellaneous
Box: 9 Folder: 19
Oro, John, 1965 - 1983
Box: 9 Folder: 20
P - Miscellaneous
Box: 9 Folder: 21
Paecht-Horowitz, Mella, 1972
Box: 9 Folder: 22
Peters, David, 1981
Box: 9 Folder: 23
Phillips, William, 1965 - 1966
Box: 9 Folder: 24
Pitha, Josef, 1969 - 1974
Box: 9 Folder: 25
Ponnamperuma, Cyril, 1965 - 1970
Box: 9 Folder: 26
R - Miscellaneous
Box: 9 Folder: 27
Rabinowitz, Joseph M., 1969 - 1970
Box: 9 Folder: 28
Reese, Colin B., 1981 - 1984
Box: 10 Folder: 1
Robins, Roland K., 1968 - 1969
Box: 10 Folder: 2
The Royal Society, 1970 - 1985
Box: 10 Folder: 3-4
S - Miscellaneous
Box: 10 Folder: 5
Sagan, Carl, 1973 - 1982
Box: 10 Folder: 6
Schwartz, Alan W., 1972 - 1981
Box: 10 Folder: 7
Seleznev, S.A., 1974 - 1975
Box: 10 Folder: 8
Sobell, Henry M., 1965 - 1982
Box: 10 Folder: 9
Stein, Gabriel, 1965 - 1968
Box: 10 Folder: 10
Strehler, Bernard L., 1974 - 1981
Box: 10 Folder: 11
T - Miscellaneous
Box: 10 Folder: 12
Thaxton, Charles B., 1981 - 1983
Box: 10 Folder: 13
Todd, John H., 1969
Box: 10 Folder: 14
Townes, Charles, 1970 - 1972
Box: 10 Folder: 15
Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 1975 - 1980

Joan Morgan, staff editor.

Box: 10 Folder: 16
Ts'o, Paul O. P., 1968 - 1976
Box: 10 Folder: 17
U - Miscellaneous
Box: 10 Folder: 18
Usher, David A., 1975 - 1983
Box: 10 Folder: 19
V - Miscellaneous
Box: 10 Folder: 20
Verheyden, Julien P. H., 1983
Box: 10 Folder: 21
W - Miscellaneous
Box: 10 Folder: 22
Watson, J.D., 1980
Box: 10 Folder: 23
Wells, Robert D., 1982 - 1984
Box: 10 Folder: 24
Westheimer, Frank H., 1970 - 1984
Box: 11 Folder: 1
Wigner, Eugene P., 1963 - 1970
Box: 11 Folder: 2
Worth Publishers, Inc., 1973
Box: 11 Folder: 3
Y - Miscellaneous
Box: 11 Folder: 4
Yates, F. Eugene, 1980
Box: 11 Folder: 4
Z - Miscellaneous
Box: 11 Folder: 6
Zubay, Geoffrey, 1979 - 1981
Box: 11 Folder: 7
Unidentified correspondents

Personal

Box: 11 Folder: 8-12
Correspondence, 1971 - 1992

WRITINGS

Scope and Content of Series

SERIES 3) WRITINGS: Organized in two subseries: A) Published, and B) Unpublished.

A) Published: Drafts, manuscripts, correspondence, redacted referee reports, reprints, and figures of Orgel's published research articles, beginning with his numbered chronological list of publications. The subseries contains 259 of the 302 listed titles, including the draft and correspondence for his textbook An Introduction to Transition Metal Chemistry: Ligand Field Theory (1960), the only representative from his work while in England. Also included are materials for his other two books, The Origins of Life: Molecules and Natural Selection (1973) and The Origins of Life on the Earth(1974), with Stanley L. Miller. Of particular interest are Orgel's files for two collaborative articles with Francis Crick, "Directed Panspermia" (#137) and "Selfish DNA: The Ultimate Parasite" (#186), which contain abundant correspondence. Arranged numerically by article number.

B) Unpublished: Drafts and correspondence for titles that do not appear on Orgel's publications list, arranged alphabetically by title.

Published

Box: 11 Folder: 13
List of publications, 1951 - 1997
Box: 11 Folder: 14
61 - An Introduction to Transition Metal Chemistry: Ligand Field Theory (1960), 1960
Box: 11 Folder: 15
87 - Induction of Mutations in Bacteriophage T4 with Divalent Manganese. With A. Orgel, 1965
Box: 11 Folder: 16
89 - Reactions of Bromomalononitrile with Bases. With James P. Ferris, 1965
Box: 11 Folder: 17
90 - Formation of Condensed Phosphate in Aqueous Solution. With A. Beck, 1965
Box: 12 Folder: 1
91 - Aminomalononitrile and 4-Amino-5- Cyanomidazole in Hydrogen Cyanide Polymerization and Adenine Synthesis. With James P. Ferris, 1965
Box: 12 Folder: 2
93 - Photochemical Synthesis of Condensed Phosphates. With A. Beck, 1965
Box: 12 Folder: 3
94 - An Unusual Photochemical Rearrangement in the Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen Cyanide. With James P. Ferris, 1966
Box: 12 Folder: 4
95 - Conditions for Purine Synthesis: Did Prebiotic Synthesis Occur at Low Temperatures? With R. Sanchez and J. Ferris, 1966

Includes photographs.

Box: 12 Folder: 5
96 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. I. Aminomalononitrile and 4-Amino-5-Cyanomiclazole. With James P. Ferris, 1966
Box: 12 Folder: 6
97 - Cyanoacetylene in Prebiotic Synthesis. With R.A. Sanchez and J. Ferris, 1966
Box: 12 Folder: 7
101 - Nucleoside Synthesis Under Potentially Prebiotic Conditions. With C. Reid, 1967
Box: 12 Folder: 8
103 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. II. Synthesis of Purine Precursors and Amino Acids from Aqueous Hydrogen Cyanide. With Robert A. Sanchez and James P. Ferris, 1967
Box: 12 Folder: 9
104 - The Non-Enzymatic Synthesis of Deoxyadenylate Oligonucleotides on a Polyuridylate Template. With H. Schneider-Bernloehr, et al, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 10
105 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. III. Synthesis of Pyrimidines from Cyanoacitylene and Cyanate. With James P. Ferris and Robert A. Sanchez, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 11
106 - Specificity of Oligonucleotide Synthesis Directed by Polyuridylic Acid. With J. Sulston and R. Lohrmann, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 12
107 - Prebiotic Synthesis: Phosporylation in Aqueous Solution. With R. Lohrmann, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 13
108 - Template-Directed Synthesis with Adenosine-5'-Phosphorimidazolide. With B.J. Weimann, et al, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 14
109 - Non-Enzymic Synthesis of Deoxyadenulate Oligonucleotides on a Polyuridylate Template. With H. Schnieder-Bernloehr, et al, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 15
110 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. IV. The Conversion of 4-Aminoinidazole-5-Carbonitrile Derivatives to Purines. With Robert A. Sanchez and James P. Ferris, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 16
111 - Partial Resolution of DL-Adenosine by Template Synthesis. With Schneider-Bernloehr, et al, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 17
112 - Evolution of the Genetic Apparatus, 1968
Box: 12 Folder: 18
114 - Non-Enzymic Oligonucleotide Synthesis on a Polytidylate Template. With J. Sulston, et al, 1969
Box: 12 Folder: 19
115 - Phosphorylation of D-Ribose in Aqueous Solution. With M. Halmann and R.A. Sanchez, 1969
Box: 12 Folder: 20
116 - Specificity of Template-Directed Synthesis with Adenosine Nucleosides. With H. Schneider-Bernloehr, et al, 1970
Box: 12 Folder: 21
117 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. V. Synthesis and Photoanomerization of Pyrimidine Nucleosides. With Robert A. Sanchez, 1970
Box: 12 Folder: 22
119 - In Vitro Selection of Qß Ribonucleic Acid Variants Resistant to Ethidium Bromide. With R. Saffhill, et al, 1970
Box: 12 Folder: 23
120 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. VI. Synthesis of Propiolaldehyde and Nicotinamide. With Michael J. Dowler, et al, 1970
Box: 12 Folder: 24
121 - The Maintenance of the Accuracy of Protein Synthesis and Its Relevance to Ageing: A Correction, 1970
Box: 12 Folder: 25
122 - Template Catalysis of Acetyl Transfer Reactions. With Nancy M. Chung and R. Lohrmann, 1971
Box: 12 Folder: 26
123 - Urea-Inorganic Phosphate Mixtures as Prebiotic Phosphorylating Agents. With R. Lohrmann, 1971
Box: 12 Folder: 27
124 - The Mechanism of the Trimetaphosphate-Induced Peptide Synthesis. With Nancy M. Chung, et al, 1971
Box: 13 Folder: 1
125 - Catalysts for the Polymerization of Adenosine Cyclic 2',3'-Phosphate on a Poly(U) Template. With M. Renz and R. Lohrmann, 1971
Box: 13 Folder: 2
128 - Prebiotic Phosphorylation of Thymidine at 65° C in Simulated Desert Conditions. With M.J. Bishop and R.Lohrmann, 1972
Box: 13 Folder: 3
129 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. VI. Synthesis of Purine Nucleosides. With William D. Fuller and Robert A. Sanchez, 1972
Box: 13 Folder: 4
130 - Polyphosphate and Trimetaphosphate Formation Under Potentially Prebiotic Conditions. With Ragnar Osterberg, 1972
Box: 13 Folder: 5
131 - Studies in Prebiotic Synthesis. VII. Solid-State Synthesis of Purine Nucleosides. With William D. Fuller and Robert A. Sanchez, 1972
Box: 13 Folder: 6
132 - A Possible Step in the Origin of the Genetic Code, 1972
Box: 13 Folder: 7-9
133 - The Origins of Life: Molecules and Natural Selection (1973)

Includes figures and photographs.

Box: 13 Folder: 10
134 - Struvite and Prebiotic Phosphorylation. With G.J. Handschuh, 1973
Box: 13 Folder: 11
135 - An RNA that Multiplies Indefinitely with DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: I. Selection from a Random Copolymer. With Christof K. Biebricher, 1973
Box: 13 Folder: 12
136 - Further Studies of Urea-Catalyzed Phosphorylation Reactions. With R. Osterberg and R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box: 13 Folder: 13-14
137 - Directed Panspermia. With F.H.C. Crick, 1973
Box: 13 Folder: 15
139 - Ageing of Clones of Mammalian Cells, 1973
Box: 14 Folder: 1
140 - Prebiotic Activation Processes. With R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box: 14 Folder: 2
141 - The Effect of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on Urea-Catalyzed Phosphorylation Reactions. With G.J. Handschuh and R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box: 14 Folder: 3
142 - Catalysts for the Self-Polymerization of Adenosine Cyclic 2',3'-Phosphate. With M.S. Verlander and R. Lohrmann, 1973
Box: 14 Folder: 4
143 - Analysis of High Molecular Weight Material from the Polymerization of Adenosine Cyclic 2',3'-Phosphate. With M.S. Verlander, 1974
Box: 14 Folder: 5
144 - The Origins of Life on the Earth (with Stanley L. Miller, 1974)
Box: 14 Folder: 6
145 - On the Possible Role of Crystals in the Origins of Life. VII. The Adsorption and Polymerization of Phosphoramidates by Montmorillonite Clay. With F.G. Burton and R. Lohrmann, 1974
Box: 14 Folder: 7
146 - Sedimentary Minerals Under Reducing Conditions, 1974
Box: 14 Folder: 8
147 - Prebiotic Chemistry and Nucleic Acid Replication. With R. Lohrmann, 1974
Box: 14 Folder: 9
149 - Poly(U)-Directed Transamidation Between Adenosine 5'-Phophorimidazolide and 5'-Phosphoadenosine 2'(3')-Glycine Ester. With Jaewon L. Shim and Rolf Lohrmann, 1974
Box: 14 Folder: 10
150 - Oligonucleotide Synthesis Catalyzed by the Zn2+ Ion. With Hiroaki Sawai, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 11
151 - Prebiotic Peptide-Formation in the Solid State. I. Reactions of Benzoate Ion and Glycine with Adenosine 5'-Phosphorimidazolide. With R. Lohrmann, et al, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 12
152 - Triple Helices Formed by Polyuridylic Acid With Some Adenosine Derivatives. With J.L. Shim and R. Lohrmann, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 13
153 - Prebiotic Peptide-Formation in the Solid State. II. Reaction of Glycine with Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate and P1,P2-Diadenosine-Pyrophosphate. With H. Sawai and R. Lohrmann, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 14
154 - Prebiotic Peptide-Formation in the Solid State. III. Condensation Reactions of Glycine in Solid State Mixtures Containing Inorganic Polyphosphates. With H. Sawai, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 15
155 - ß-Structure of Alternating Polypeptides and Their Possible Prebiotic Significance. With André Brack, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 16
156 - Prebiotic Polynucleotides and Polypeptides, 1975
Box: 14 Folder: 17
158 - N,N-Carbonyldiimidazole-Induced Peptide Formation in Aqueous Solution. With K.W. Ehler, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 18
159 - Polymerization of Nucleotide Analogues. I. Reaction of Nucleoside 5'-Phosphorimidazolides with 2'-Amino-2'-Dexoyuridine. With R. Lohrmann, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 19
160 - Template-Directed Synthesis of High Molecular-Weight Polynucleotide Analogues. With R. Lohrmann, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 20
161 - Triple Helices Formed by Polyuridylic Acid with Some Amino Deoxyadenosine Derivatives. With Don E. Gibbs, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 21
162 - Search for Organic and Volatile Inorganic Compounds in Two Surface Samples from the Chryse Planitia of Mars, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 22
163 - N,N-Carbonyldiimidazole-Induced Deketopiperazine Formation in Aqueous Solution in the Presence of Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate. With A. Brack and K.W. Ehler, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 23
164 - Some 5'-Azido and 5'-Amino-2'-Deoxyribonucleosides, Their 3'-Phosphates, and Their 3"-Phosphoimidazolides. With Don E. Gibbs, 1976
Box: 14 Folder: 24
165 - Reactions of Polyfunctional Amino Acids with N',N'-Carbonyldiimidazole in Aqueous Solution - Oligopeptide Formation. With K.W. Ehler and E. Girard, 1977
Box: 15 Folder: 1
166 - ß-Turns and the Evolution of Protein Synthesis, 1977
Box: 15 Folder: 2
167 - Reactions of Adenosine 5'-Phosphorimidazolide with Adenosine Analogues on a Polyuridylic Acid Template: The Uniqueness of the ß-Riboside. With R. Lohrmann, 1977
Box: 15 Folder: 3
168 - Template-Directed Reactions of Aminonucleosides. With R. Lohrmann, 1977
Box: 15 Folder: 4
169 - Gene-Duplication and the Origin of Proteins with Novel Functions, 1977
Box: 15 Folder: 5
170 - The Search for Organic Substances and Inorganic Volatile Compounds in the Surface of Mars. With K. Biemann, et al, 1977
Box: 15 Folder: 6
171 - Template-Directed Polynucleotide Condensation as a Model for RNA Replication. With R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 7
172 - Preferential Formation of (2'-5')-Linked Internucleotide Bonds in Non-Enzymatic Reactions. With R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 8
173 - Formation of P1,P2-Dinucleoside 5'-Pyrophosphates Under Potentially Prebiological Conditions. With R. Lohrmann, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 9
174 - Amino Acid Activation with Adenosine 5'-Phosphorimidazole. With A.L. Weber, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 10
175 - Phosphorylation of Nucleosides in Aqueous Solution Using Trimetaphosphate: Formation of Nucleoside Triphosphate. With Elisabeth Etaix, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 11
176 - Formation of the Imidazolides of Dinucleotides Under Potentially Prebiotic Conditions. With H.L. Sleeper and R.Lohrmann, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 12
177 - The Formation of Peptides from the 2'(3')-Glycyl Ester of a Nucleotide. With Arthur L. Weber, 1978
Box: 15 Folder: 13
178 - Heteropolynucleotides as Templates for Non-Enzymatic Polymerizations. With J. Ninio, 1978

A prior version titled "Template-Directed Condensation in Oligoadenylic Acids" is located in Series 3B.

Box: 15 Folder: 14
179 - Studies of Oligoadenylate Formation on a Poly(U) Template. With R. Lohrmann, 1979
Box: 15 Folder: 15
180 - The Catalysis of Nucleotide Polymerization by Compounds of Divalent Lead. With H.L. Sleeper, 1979
Box: 15 Folder: 16
181 - Selection in vitro, 1979
Box: 15 Folder: 17
182 - The Formation of Dipeptides from Amino Acids and the 2'(3')-Glycyl Ester of an Adenylate. With Arthur L. Weber, 1979
Box: 15 Folder: 18
183 - The Formation of Peptides from Glycine Thioesters. With Arthur L. Weber, 1979
Box: 15 Folder: 19
184 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoadenylates Catalyzed by Pb2+ Ions. With H.L. Sleeper and R. Lohrmann, 1979
Box: 15 Folder: 20
185 - Self-Condensation of Activated Dinucleotides on Polynucleotide Templates with Alternating Sequences. With R. Lohrmann, 1979
Box: 16 Folder: 1-3
186 - Selfish DNA: The Ultimate Parasite. With F.H.C. Crick, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 4
188 - Efficient Metal-Ion Catalyzed Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Synthesis. With R. Lohrmann, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 5
189 - Template-Directed Synthesis and Selective Adsorption of Oligoadenylates on Hydroxyapatite. With D. Gibbs and R. Lohrmann, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 6
190 - Poly(U)-Directed Peptide-Bond Formation from the 2'(3')-Glycyl Ester of Adenosine Derivatives. With Arthur L. Weber, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 7
191 - Efficient Catalysis of Poly(C)-Directed Oligoguanylate Formation by Pb2+. With R. Lohrmann, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 8
192 - Catalysis of Accurate Poly(C)-Directed Synthesis of 3'-5'-Linked Oligoguanylates by Zn2+. With P.K. Bridson, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 9
193 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoguanylic Acids - Metal Ion Catalysis. With P.K. Bridson, et al, 1981
Box: 16 Folder: 10
194 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoguanylates in the Presence of Metal Ions. With J.H.G. van Roode, 1980
Box: 16 Folder: 11
196 - The Effect of Poly(C) on the Formation of Peptide Bonds from the 2'(3')-Gycyl Ester of a Guanosine Nucleotide. With Arthur L. Weber, 1981
Box: 16 Folder: 12
197 - The Synthesis of Oligoguanylates on Oligocytidylate Templates. With H. Fakhrai and J.H.G. van Roode, 1981
Box: 16 Folder: 13
198 - Condensation of Activated Diguanylates on a Poly(C) Template. With R. Lohrmann and P.K. Bridson, 1981
Box: 16 Folder: 14
199 - Substituent Control of the Poly(C)-Directed Oligomerization of Guanosine 5'-Phosphoroimidazolide. With Tan Inoue, 1981
Box: 16 Folder: 15
200 - Template Directed Reactions of 2-Aminoadenylic Acid Derivatives. With Thomas R. Webb, 1982
Box: 16 Folder: 16
201 - Oligomerization of (Guanosine 5'-Phosphor)-2-Methylimidazolide on Poly(C): An RNA Polymerase Model. With T. Inoue, 1982
Box: 16 Folder: 17
202 - Darwinism At the Very Beginning of Life, 1982
Box: 16 Folder: 18
203 - A Non-Enzymatic RNA Polymerase Model, 1983
Box: 16 Folder: 19
204 - The Origin of Life and the Evolution of Macromolecules, 1983
Box: 17 Folder: 1
205 - Derivation of Unprotected Polynucleotides. With Barbara C.F. Chu and Geoffrey M. Wahl, 1983
Box: 17 Folder: 2
206 - Temperature-Dependence of the Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligoguanylates. With Habib Fakhrai and Tan Inoue, 1984
Box: 17 Folder: 3
207 - Preparation of Ligation Intermediates and Related Polynucleotide Pyrophosphates. With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1984
Box: 17 Folder: 4
208 - Non-Enzymatic Template-Directed Synthesis on RNA Random Copolymers. I. Poly(CU) Templates. With G.F. Joyce and T. Inoue, 1984
Box: 17 Folder: 5
209 - Chiral Selection in Poly(C)-Directed Synthesis of Oligo(G). With G.F. Joyce, et al, 1984
Box: 17 Folder: 6
210 - Template-Directed Synthesis on the Pentanucleotide CpCpGpCpC. With T. Inoue, et al, 1984
Box: 17 Folder: 7
211 - Template-Directed Synthesis with 2-Aminoadenosine. With Kazimierz Grzeskowiak and Thomas R. Webb, 1984
Box: 17 Folder: 8
212 - Non-Enzymatic Sequence-Specific Cleavage of Single-Stranded DNA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Adduct/Oligodeoxynucleotide/Hybridization). With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1985
Box: 17 Folder: 9
213 - Oligomerization of Activated Derivatives of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxyguanosine on Poly(C) and Poly(dC) Templates. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1985
Box: 17 Folder: 10
214 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligodeoxycytidylate and Polydeoxycytidylate Templates. With C.B. Chen and T. Inoue, 1980
Box: 17 Folder: 11
215 - Template-Directed Synthesis of Novel, Nucleic Acid-Like Structures. With Alan W. Schwartz, 1985
Box: 17 Folder: 12
217 - Template-Directed Polynucleotide Synthesis on Mineral Surfaces. With Alan W. Schwartz, 1985

Letter to the editor.

Box: 17 Folder: 13
218 - Detection of Specific DNA Sequences with Short Biotin-Labeled Probes. With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1985
Box: 18 Folder: 1
220 - Template-Directed Synthesis on the Oligonucleotide d(C7-G-C7). With Tomasz Haertle, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 2
221 - Non-Enzymatic Template-Directed Synthesis on RNA Random Copolymers: Poly(C,G) Templates. With G.F. Joyce, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 3
222 - The Template Properties of Some Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Cytidine and Guanosine. With Tomasz Haertle, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 4
223 - Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Ligation on Hydroxylapatite: An Analogue of Solid Phase Synthesis. with Oscar L. Acevedo, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 5
224 - Synthesis of an Amplifiable Reporter RNA for Bioassays. With Barbara C.F. Chu and Fred Russell Kramer, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 6
225 - Molecular Replication and the Origins of Life, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 7
226 - Template-Directed Synthesis on Short Oligoribocytidylates. With Kazimierz Grzeskowiak, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 8
227 - How Mistakes Are Made. Review of Accuracy in Molecular Processes: Its Control and Relevance in Living Systems (T.B.L. Kirkwood, R.F. Rosenberger and D.J. Galas, editors, 1986), 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 9
228 - Did Template-Directed Nucleation Precede Molecular Replication?, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 10-11
229 - RNA Catalysis and the Origins of Life, 1986
Box: 18 Folder: 12
230 - Oligoaminonucleoside Phosphoramidates. Oligomerization of Dimers of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxynucleotides (GC and CG) in Aqueous Solution. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1987
Box: 18 Folder: 13
231 - The Action of a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide on Adenosine-5'--Polyphosphates. With Kam-mui Eva Ng, 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 1
232 - Autocatalytic Synthesis of a Tetranucleotide Analogue. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 2
233 - Oligomerization of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxyguanosine-5'-Phosphorimidazolidate on a d(CpCpCpCpC) Template. With Mary Tohidi, et al
Box: 19 Folder: 3
234 - The Case for an Ancestral Genetic System Involving Simple Analogues of the Nucleotides. With Gerald F. Joyce, et al, 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 4
235 - Impressions of the LII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, "The Evolution of Catalytic Function", 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 5
236 - Non-Enzymatic Transcription of an Oligodeoxynucleotide 14 Residues Long. With Oscar L. Acevedo, 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 6
237 - Evolution of the Genetic Apparatus: A Review, 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 7
238 - The Origin of Self-Replicating Molecules, 1987
Box: 19 Folder: 8
239 - Template-Directed Oligomerization of 3-Isoadenosine 5'-Phosphate. With Aubrey R. Hill, et al, 1988
Box: 19 Folder: 9
240 - Ligation of Oligonucleotides to Nucleic Acids or Proteins via Disulfide Bonds. With Barbara C.F. Chu, 1988
Box: 19 Folder: 10
241 - Non-Enzymatic Template-Directed Synthesis on RNA Random Copolymers: Poly(C,A) Templates. With G.F. Joyce, 1988
Box: 19 Folder: 11
242 - Cyclization of Nucleotide Analogues as an Obstacle to Polymerization. With Aubrey R. Hill, Jr., et al, 1989

Letter to the editor.

Box: 19 Folder: 12
243 - Some Acyclic Analogues of Nucleotides and Their Template-Directed Reactions. With Mahrokh Tohidi, 1989
Box: 19 Folder: 13
245 - Reaction on Alternating GC Oligonucleotide Templates. With K-m.E. Ng, 1989
Box: 19 Folder: 14
246 - Replacement of the 3'-CH Group by Nitrogen in the Carbocylic Analogue of Thymidine. With Kam-mui Eva Ng, 1989
Box: 19 Folder: 15
247 - Was RNA the First Genetic Polymer?, 1989
Box: 20 Folder: 1
248 - Template Properties of Tetranucleoside Triphosphoramidates Having Cytosine-Guanosine Residues. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1989
Box: 20 Folder: 2
249 - Polymerization of a Monomeric Guanosine Derivative in a Hydrogen-Bonded Aggregate, 1989
Box: 20 Folder: 3
250 - The Origin of Polynucleotide-Directed Protein Synthesis, 1989
Box: 20 Folder: 4
251 - Polymerization of the Cyclic Pyrophosphates on Nucleosides and Their Analogues. With Mahrokh Tohidi, 1990
Box: 20 Folder: 5
251A - Nucleic Acids: Adding to the Genetic Alphabet, 1990
Box: 20 Folder: 6
252 - A Simple Procedure for Cross-Linking Complementary Oligonucleotides. With B.C.F. Chu, 1990
Box: 20 Folder: 7
253 - Polymerization of Amino Acids Containing Nucleotide Bases. With Azzouz Ben Cheikh, 1990
Box: 20 Folder: 8
255 - Blunt-End and Single-Strand Ligation by Escherichia coli Ligase: Influence on an In Vitro Amplification Scheme. With Kevin J. Barringer, et al, 1990
Box: 20 Folder: 9
257 - Synthesis of 5'-Deoxy-5'-Nucleosideacetic Acid Derivatives. With Kazuo Harada, 1990
Box: 20 Folder: 10
258 - Pyrophosphate-Formation As the Most Efficient Condensation Reaction of Activated Nucleotides. With Libaniel Rodriguez, 1991
Box: 20 Folder: 11
259 - Disulfide-Linked Oligonucleotide Phosphorothioates: Novel Analogues of Nucleic Acids. With Taifeng Wu, 1991
Box: 20 Folder: 12
260 - Acceleration of the Template-Directed Reactions of Nucleoside 5'-Phosphorimidazolides by Acylation. With Libaniel Rodriguez, 1991
Box: 20 Folder: 13
261 - The Cyclization of Arabinosyladenine-5'-Phosphorimidazolide. With Kazuo Harada, 1991
Box: 20 Folder: 14
262 - Which 3-Ribofuranosyl-Substituted Purine 5'-Phosphates Undergo Template-Directed Oligomerization? With Aubrey R. Hill, Jr., et al, 1991
Box: 20 Folder: 15
263 - Template-Directed Extension of a Guanosine 5'-Phosphate Covalently Attached to an Oligodeoxycytidylate Template. With Libaniel Rodriguez, 1991
Box: 20 Folder: 16
264 - Photooxidation of Oligodeoxynucleotides by UO22+. With Aubrey R. Hill, Jr., 1991
Box: 21 Folder: 1
265 - An Efficient Sequence-Specific Method for Crosslinking Complementary Oligonucleotides Using Binuclear Platinum Complexes. With Eric S. Gruff, 1991

Unpublished

Box: 21 Folder: 2
Existence of Self-Reproducing Units, 1964 - 1965
Box: 21 Folder: 3
Oligomerization of Dimers of 3'-Amino-3'-Deoxynucleotides Having Complementary AC and GU Sequences. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1988
Box: 21 Folder: 4
Poly(dC) as a Template for Non-Enzymatic Oligo(G) Synthesis. With Tan Inoue
Box: 21 Folder: 5
Polymerization of a Monomeric Guanosine Derivative in a Hydrogen Bonded Aggregate. With Wojciech S. Zielinski, 1988
Box: 21 Folder: 6-7
Template-Directed Condensation of Oligoadenylic Acids. With Jacques Ninio, 1976 - 1977

The published version of this paper is located in Series 3A: 178 - Heteropolynucleotides as Templates for Non-Enzymatic Polymerizations.

Box: 21 Folder: 8
Thermal Synthesis of Oligourdylates at Moderate Temperatures. With Ragnar Osterberg and Rolf Lohrmann

CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS

Scope and Content of Series

SERIES 4) CONTRACTS, GRANTS AND PROPOSALS: Correspondence, proposals, contracts, figures, and budget information for Orgel's research projects. Arranged by sponsoring agency in four subseries: A) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), B) National Institutes of Health (NIH), C) National Science Foundation (NSF), and D) U.S. Army.

A) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): Includes materials on the photochemical generation of prebiotic condensing agents, molecular analysis for the 1975 Viking Mars Lander missions, and RNA polymerase models.

B) National Institutes of Health (NIH): Includes Orgel's research projects on the evolution of genetic specificity and nucleic acid analogs.

C) National Science Foundation (NSF): Research projects in prebiotic chemistry, biochemical evolution, and template-directed synthesis.

D) U.S. Army: A research proposal for sequence-specific inactivation of m-RNA.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Box: 21 Folder: 9-10
Photochemical Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1965 - 1969
Box: 21 Folder: 11-12
Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1970 - 1971
Box: 21 Folder: 13
Participation in the Science Planning for the Viking 1975 Missions in the Area of Molecular Analysis, 1970
Box: 22 Folder: 1-2
Participation in the Science Planning for the Viking 1975 Missions in the Area of Molecular Analysis, 1971 - 1980
Box: 22 Folder: 3-12
Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1972 - 1984
Box: 22 Folder: 13
RNA Polymerase Models, 1982
Box: 23 Folder: 1-4
Models for the Generation of Prebiotic Condensing Agents, 1985 - 1988
Box: 23 Folder: 5
Prebiotic Template-Directed Synthesis, 1985

National Institutes of Health

Box: 23 Folder: 6-7
Evolution of Genetic Specificity, 1965 - 1968
Box: 23 Folder: 8
Nucleic Acid Analogs - Synthesis and Chemotherapy, 1971 - 1974
Box: 24 Folder: 1-4
Evolution of Genetic Specificity, 1975 - 1987

National Science Foundation

Box: 24 Folder: 5-6
Study of Biochemical Evolution, 1964 - 1969
Box: 24 Folder: 7
Prebiotic Activation of Amino Acids and Nucleotide Bases, 1973 - 1978
Box: 25 Folder: 1
Prebiotic Formation of Peptide Bonds, 1978 - 1979
Box: 25 Folder: 2
A Non-Classical System of Template-Directed Synthesis, 1981 - 1983
Box: 25 Folder: 3-5
Template-Directed Synthesis with 3'-Amino 3'-Deoxynucleotides, 1982 - 1989

United States Army

Box: 25 Folder: 6
Sequence-Specific Inactivation of m-RNA, 1985 - 1986

CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS

Scope and Content

Series 5) CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS: Correspondence, programs, speaker lists, notes, and drafts of talks given by Orgel at scientific conferences, symposia, and seminars. Includes lists of meetings that Orgel attended. Arranged chronologically.

Box: 25 Folder: 7
Lists of meetings attended: 1975-1977, 1981-1985
Box: 25 Folder: 8
First Soviet American Conference on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI). Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1971 September 5-11

1967 October 20: A series of "Telesnaps" photographs from a British Broadcasting Corporation program, numbered.

Box: 25 Folder: 9
Quatrième Conférence Internationale de la Physique Théorique à la Biologie. Paris, 1973 May 28

Includes correspondence in French.

Box: 25 Folder: 10
Some Aspects of Pre-Biotic Chemistry - Some Theories of Ageing (and the Evidence). Cornell University Special Lectures, 1975 February 27-28
Box: 25 Folder: 11
Symposium on Nucleic Acid Replication. Montebello, Québec, 1975 March 2-7
Box: 25 Folder: 12
Fourth Annual Workshop on the Biology of Aging - Perspectives in Theories of Biological. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1975 March 23-25
Box: 25 Folder: 13
Polymerization and Polycondensation on Clays - Their Role in Abiotic Synthesis and the Origin of Life. Polytechnic Institute of New York, 1975 May 23
Box: 26 Folder: 1-2
European Molecular Biology Organization workshop, Barcelona, 1975 May 26-28

Contains letters by Carl Sagan (1/17/75) and Severo Ochoa (11/21/74).

Box: 26 Folder: 3
Viking Science Symposium on Earth and Mars - The Role of Life, Kennedy Space Center, 1975 August 7-11
Box: 26 Folder: 4
Prebiotic Synthesis of Nucleotides and Polynucleotides, Ames Research Center, 1975 August 13
Box: 26 Folder: 5
Chemistry Colloquium, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 1975 October 22
Box: 26 Folder: 6
Evans Lecture, Ohio State University Chemistry Department, 1975 October 24
Box: 26 Folder: 7
Towards Self-Replicating Molecules. Texas A and M University, College of Agriculture, 1975 October 28
Box: 26 Folder: 8
Robert A. Welch Foundation Conferences on Chemical Research. XIX: Photon Chemistry, Houston, 1975 October 29-31
Box: 26 Folder: 9
Bio-Cultural Concepts of Man, Fullerton College, 1975 November 19
Box: 26 Folder: 10
Discussion Colloquium on the Biology of Religion. Institute for Higher Studies, Santa Barbara, 1975 December 3-4
Box: 26 Folder: 11
Gordon Research Conference on the Biology of Aging, Santa Barbara, 1976 January 25-30
Box: 26 Folder: 12
Lectures on Chemical Evolution. Stanford University Medical Center, 1976 February 6
Box: 26 Folder: 13
Science and Our Expectations - Bicentennial and Beyond. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, 1976 February 18-24

Contains letter by Carl Sagan (10/17/75).

Box: 26 Folder: 14
Viking Molecular Analysis Team. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, 1976 March 18-19
Box: 26 Folder: 15
Genetics Seminar, Salk Institute - Origin of Self-Replicating Material, 1976 April 6
Box: 26 Folder: 16
Viking Project. Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Viking Flight Team Memorandum, 1976 April 9-10
Box: 26 Folder: 17
Renaud Lectures. Michigan State University, Department of Biochemistry, 1976 April 19-20
Box: 26 Folder: 18
Organization and Expression of the Eukaryotic Genome, Portsmouth, U.K., 1976 May 3-6
Box: 26 Folder: 19
Langley Colloquium Series, Hampton, Virginia, 1976 June 28
Box: 26 Folder: 20
Present State of Viking Data. MIT Department of Chemistry, 1977 January 10-12
Box: 26 Folder: 21
Institute for Higher Studies seminar - A Fifty Year View, Santa Barbara, 1977 January 20-22
Box: 26 Folder: 22
United States Information Agency. Viking Science Tour, Paris, 1977 March 3-4:
Box: 26 Folder: 23
New Trends in Geriatric Care. UC San Diego School of Medicine, 1977 March 14
Box: 26 Folder: 24
Molecules and Evolution. International Lectures on Human, Global and Universal Problems. University of Stockholm, 1977 April 19-20
Box: 26 Folder: 25
Origin of Self-Replicating Molecules. California State University, Los Angeles, 1977 March 29
Box: 26 Folder: 26
Origins of Life Festival. University of Oregon, Institute of Molecular Biology, 1977 May 16
Box: 26 Folder: 27
Viking Science Steering Group meeting, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1977 June 28-29
Box: 26 Folder: 28
Current Biological Problems - A School for Physical Scientists, Seattle, 1977 July 15-16
Box: 26 Folder: 29
International Summer School on Genome Organization and Function, Spetsai, Greece, 1977 August 21 - September 3
Box: 26 Folder: 30
Seminar - California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, 1977 October 17
Box: 26 Folder: 31
A Conversation About the Origins of Life. Friends of the International Center, UC San Diego, 1977 November 8
Box: 27 Folder: 1
Seminar Series, California State University, Long Beach, Department of Chemistry, 1977 November 16
Box: 27 Folder: 2
Science Seminar, San Diego City College, Department of Chemistry, 1977 December 1
Box: 27 Folder: 3
Meeting of the Royal Society, London, 1978 December 6-7
Box: 27 Folder: 4
Conference on Selforganization in Living Systems, Drubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1979 August 26-31
Box: 27 Folder: 5
The Evolution of Life - A Public Symposium, Toronto, 1979 October 25-26
Box: 27 Folder: 6
Fifth Science Workshop on the Origins of Life, Los Angeles, 1980 January 17-18
Box: 27 Folder: 7
American Institute of Biological Sciences. Planetary Biology Advisory Panel, Arlington, Virginia, 1980 February 4-5
Box: 27 Folder: 8
Prebiotic Chemistry - Nucleic Acids and the Origin of Self-Replication, UC Los Angeles, 1980 April 18
Box: 27 Folder: 9
Science Workshops on the Origins of Life, Rockefeller University, New York, 1980 April 24-25
Box: 27 Folder: 10
Monsanto Company Technical Management Conference - New Technology Horizons, St. Louis, 1980 May 20-21
Box: 27 Folder: 11
Workshop on Molecular Evolution and Function of Three Dimensional Structure in Nucleic Acids and Proteins, University of Stockholm, 1980 June 16-17
Box: 27 Folder: 12
International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life Conference, Jerusalem, 1980 June 23-27
Box: 27 Folder: 13
Pomona College Dreyfus Seminar Series, Claremont, 1980 September 25
Box: 27 Folder: 14
Seminar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1980 September 30
Box: 27 Folder: 15
Caltech Centennial Symposium - The Chemical Bond Structure and Dynamics, Pasadena, 1981 February 28
Box: 27 Folder: 16
Towards an RNA Polymerase Model, UC Los Angeles School of Medicine, 1981 March 4
Box: 27 Folder: 17
Contemporary Issues Undergraduate Seminar. Origins of Life in the Ocean? UC San Diego, 1981 March 31
Box: 27 Folder: 18
Genome Evolution and Phenotype Variation. University of Cambridge Genome Meeting, 1981 June 22-24
Box: 27 Folder: 19
Dalhousie Symposium on the Evolution of the Eukaryotic Genome and Its Components, Halifax, 1981 July 12-15
Box: 27 Folder: 20
Organizing and Planning Meeting for Workshops on Exobiology in the Exploration of the Solar System, Ames Research Center, 1981 August 3-4
Box: 27 Folder: 21
European Molecular Biology Organization Workshop on Accuracy, Grignon, France, 1981 September 1-6
Box: 27 Folder: 22
Max Planck Institute, Göttingen, 1981 September 6-9
Box: 27 Folder: 23
California Catalysis Society Fall Meeting, La Jolla, 1981 October 24-25
Box: 27 Folder: 24
Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution - Space Science Board, Washington, D.C., 1981 December 7-8
Box: 27 Folder: 25
Workshop on Exobiology in Solar System Exploration, Ames Research Center, 1981 December 9-11
Box: 27 Folder: 26
City of Hope Research Institute Seminar, Duarte, California, 1982 February 2
Box: 27 Folder: 27
Gordon Conference on Metals in Biology, Ventura, 1982 February 8-12
Box: 27 Folder: 28
Biophysical/Physical Chemistry seminar. UC Berkeley, Chemistry Department, 1982 March 16
Box: 27 Folder: 29
Life Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting. Exobiology Program Review, Ames Research Center, 1982 March 20
Box: 27 Folder: 30
Space Science Board. Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, Santa Barbara, 1982 March 25-28
Box: 27 Folder: 31
Exobiology Program Review, NASA Life Sciences Advisory Committee, Ames Research Center, 1982 April 12
Box: 27 Folder: 32
Origin and Evolution of Life. Tufts University, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Boston, 1982 April 28
Box: 27 Folder: 33
Committee on Space Science Research, 24th Plenary Meeting - Chemical Evolution and the Origins of Life, Ottawa, 1982 May 17-June 3
Box: 28 Folder: 1
Darwin Centenary Conference. Cambridge, UK, 1982 June 27-July 2
Box: 28 Folder: 2
Gordon Conference on the Origin of Life, New London, NH, 1982 July 19-23
Box: 28 Folder: 3
First Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life, Ames Research Center, 1982 August 2-4
Box: 28 Folder: 4
The Past, Present and Future of Genetics. Brno, Czechoslovakia, 1982 August 26-September 1
Box: 28 Folder: 5
Nobel Symposium on Inorganic Biochemistry, Sweden, 1982 September 5-10
Box: 28 Folder: 6
U.S.-Japan Cooperative Seminar on Pathogenic Mechanisms in Werner's Syndrome and Their Role in Human Aging, Kobe, 1982 December 10-12
Box: 28 Folder: 7
Gerontology Research Center Seminar. A Non-Enzymatic RNA Polymerase Model, Baltimore, 1983 February 22
Box: 28 Folder: 8
Space Science Board, Committee on Planetary Biology, Washington, D.C., 1983 February 23-25
Box: 28 Folder: 9
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science and Engineering - Toward a National Renaissance, Detroit, 1983 May 26-31
Box: 28 Folder: 10
7th International Conference on the Origins of Life and 4th Meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life, Mainz, Germany, 1983 July 10-15
Box: 28 Folder: 11
Third Workshop on Exobiology in Solar System Exploration, Ames Research Center, 1983 August 25-26
Box: 28 Folder: 12
Conference on Biomaterials, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, MA, 1983 September 19-20
Box: 28 Folder: 13
Attempts to Imitate RNA Polymerase, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1983 October 14
Box: 28 Folder: 14
Attempts to Develop a Nonenzymatic RNA Polymerase. California State University, Los Angeles, 1983 October 18
Box: 28 Folder: 15
Pacific Conference on Chemistry and Spectroscopy. Origin of Life Symposium, Pasadena, 1983 October 26-28
Box: 28 Folder: 16
1985 February 7: Organization, Replication and Evolution of Early Macromolecules, Orléans, France, 1985 February 7
Box: 28 Folder: 17
Chemische Gesellschaft Zürich, 1985 February 13
Box: 28 Folder: 18
City of Hope, Duarte, CA, 1985 April 12
Box: 28 Folder: 19
Primary Structure Conformation and Evolution of Nucleic Acids and Proteins. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, 1985 May 2-4

Includes photgraph of Giorgio Bernardi.

Box: 28 Folder: 20
Fourth Conversation in the Discipline - Biomolecular Stereodynamics. State University of New York at Albany, 1985 June 4-8
Box: 28 Folder: 21
2nd Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life, Ames Research Center, 1985 July 23-26
Box: 28 Folder: 22
Niels Bohr Centenary Symposium, Copenhagen, 1985 October 4-7
Box: 28 Folder: 23
Symposium on the Origin of Life, Caltech, Pasadena, 1985 October 14-15

Contains photograph of birthday cake, "70 Happy Birthday Norm 70."

Box: 28 Folder: 24
Seminar Program. University of California, Davis, Department of Zoology, 1985 November 12
Box: 28 Folder: 25
Annual Meeting of the Gerontology Society of America, New Orleans, 1985 November 22-26
Box: 28 Folder: 26
Bureau of Biological Research 50th Anniversary Symposium - A Molecular View of Evolution. Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 1986 May 15
Box: 28 Folder: 27
22nd Winter Seminar on Molecules, Information and Memory, Klosters, Switzerland, 1987 January 18-30
Box: 28 Folder: 28
Biochemistry Department lecture series. University of California, Berkeley, 1987 February 17
Box: 28 Folder: 29
Western Winter Workshop on the Evolution of Genes and Genomes, Lake Tahoe, 1987 March 4-7
Box: 28 Folder: 30
General Biology Seminar. California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, 1987 April 28
Box: 28 Folder: 31
Significance of Chemical Templates in Studies on the Origin of Life. University of Toledo, 1987 May 4
Box: 28 Folder: 32
Evolution of Catalytic Function, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1987 May 27-June 3

Includes correspondence from James Watson.

Box: 29 Folder: 1
Symposium on the Bioorganic Chemistry of Enzymes and Nucleic Acids, Bellingham, WA, 1987 June 18-19
Box: 29 Folder: 2
Space Life Sciences Symposium. Three Decades of Life Science Research in Space, Washington, D.C., 1987 June 21-26
Box: 29 Folder: 3
Gordon Conference on the Origins of Life, Concord, NH, 1987 August 17-21
Box: 29 Folder: 4
Artificial Life - an Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Los Alamos, 1987 September 21-25
Box: 29 Folder: 5
The Frontiers of Tomorrow in Biology, Hyderabad, 1987 November 19-26
Box: 29 Folder: 6
Gunter Sachs Postdoctoral Winter Symposium. Genes and Development, La Jolla, 1988 January 14-15
Box: 29 Folder: 7
American Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting, Boston, 1988 February 12-14
Box: 29 Folder: 8
Royal Netherlands Chemical Society. Biennial Symposium of the Organic Division, Wageningen, 1988 April 14-15
Box: 29 Folder: 9
9th Annual D.G. Davis Memorial Lecture. Molecular Replication and the Origin of Life, University of New Orleans, 1988 April 22
Box: 29 Folder: 10
Gordon Conference on Enzymes, Coenzymes and Metabolic Pathways, Meriden, NH, 1988 July 4-8
Box: 29 Folder: 11
International Summer School on Organization and Function of the Eukaryotic Genome, Spetsai, Greece, 1988 September 1-10
Box: 29 Folder: 12
196th American Chemical Society Meeting and Exposition, Los Angeles, 1988 September 25-30
Box: 29 Folder: 13
Template-Directed Synthesis of Oligonucleotides. UC Santa Cruz, 1988 October 24
Box: 29 Folder: 14
Applied Molecular Evolution and the Maturation of the Immune Response, Santa Fe, 1989 March 27-31
Box: 29 Folder: 15
Ida Bean Visiting Professor Lecture Series. University of Iowa, 1989 April 16-19
Box: 29 Folder: 16
Storer Life Sciences Symposium - Evolution of the Biosphere, UC Davis, 1989 May 8-11
Box: 29 Folder: 17
Cold Spring Harbor RNA Processing meeting, 1989 May 17-21
Box: 29 Folder: 18
6th International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life meeting and 9th International Conference on the Ninth International Conference on the Origin of Life, Prague, 1989 July 3-8
Box: 29 Folder: 19
25th Winter Seminar on Molecules, Information and Memory, Klosters, Switzerland, 1990 January 21-26
Box: 29 Folder: 20
Frontiers in Biomedical Research, Rancho Mirage, CA, 1990 February 4-8
Box: 29 Folder: 21
Lecture Series on Frontiers in Chemistry. Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, 1990 February 9
Box: 29 Folder: 22
Juan March Foundation Lectures on Molecular Biology, Madrid, 1990 March 5
Box: 29 Folder: 23
Biology Department Seminar, Yale University, 1990 March 28
Box: 29 Folder: 24
Molecular Biology and the Origin of Life Symposium, Institute for Advanced Studies in Biology, Berkeley, 1990 July 15-18
Box: 29 Folder: 25
4th Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life, Ames Research Center, 1990 July 24-27
Box: 30 Folder: 1
Catalytic RNA as an Anti-HIV Agent. Design and Delivery to Cells, San Diego, 1990 October 21-24
Box: 30 Folder: 2
Structural Biology Seminar. UC Berkeley Chemistry Department, 1990 November 19
Box: 30 Folder: 3
Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, Taos, 1991 February 2-8
Box: 30 Folder: 4
Tribute to Linus Pauling on His 90th Birthday, Caltech, 1991 February 28
Box: 30 Folder: 5
Evolution, Göttingen, 1991 April 22
Box: 30 Folder: 6
Bruno Zimm Symposium. UC San Diego, 1991 May 18
Box: 30 Folder: 7
American Chemical Society, San Diego Section, 1991 May 29

SUBJECT FILES

Scope and Content

Series 6) SUBJECT FILES: Correspondence, grants, and proposals related to Orgel's and the Salk Institute's research on aging, including a proposed book on aging by Orgel and Robin Holliday; biographical information on Leslie Orgel, Carl Sagan, and John Griffith Stanley; photographs of Mars taken by the Viking Landers; and an audio recording on RNA sequencing. The series also includes correspondence and a table of contents for a proposed book about the RNA Tie Club, a 1950s society of researchers dedicated to understanding the genetic code. Original media is restricted; researchers may request listening copies in advance of their visit.

Box: 30 Folder: 8-9
Aging - Book on aging

Includes chapter on clonal aging.

Box: 30 Folder: 10-14
Aging - Correspondence, 1970 - 1981
Box: 31 Folder: 1-2
Aging - Correspondence , 1973 - 1984

Includes correspondence with publishers.

Box: 31 Folder: 3-5
Aging - Grants, 1972 - 1983

Includes grants applications to Fritz B. Burns Foundations, McConnell Clark Foundation, and the National Institute of Health.

Box: 31 Folder: 6-7
Aging - Salk Institute research programs, symposia and workshops, 1973 - 1974
Box: 31 Folder: 8
Biebricher, Christof, 1972 - 1976
Box: 31 Folder: 9
Griffith, John Stanley - Correspondence regarding his candidacy for the Royal Society, 1969
Box: 31 Folder: 10
Mars - Photographs from Viking 1 and 2 Landers, 1976
Box: 31 Folder: 11
Mulliken, Robert S., 1978 - 1985
Box: 31 Folder: 12
RNA sequencing - Reel-to-reel audio recording

Restrictions Apply

Box: 31 Folder: 13
RNA Tie Club - Book materials, 1953 - 1981

Includes correspondence (1953-1962) from George Gamow to James Watson and Alexander Rich. Also includes a detailed table of contents for proposed book.

Box: 31 Folder: 14
Sagan, Carl, 1991

Correspondence regarding Sagan's nomination to the National Academy of Sciences.

Box: 32 Folder: 1
University of California, San Diego - Chemistry Department, 1964 - 1980

Correspondence and biographical materials regarding Orgel's academic appointment at UC San Diego.

SALK INSTITUTE

Chemical Evolution Laboratory

Box: 32 Folder: 2-4
Annual reports, 1975 - 1980

Faculty

Box: 32 Folder: 5
Faculty meetings, 1984 - 1986
Box: 32 Folder: 6
Senior resident faculty meetings, 1976 - 1982

Fellows

Box: 32 Folder: 7-8
Annual Report of the Director to the Fellows of the Salk Institute, 1971 - 1975
Box: 32 Folder: 9
Fellows Committee, 1970
Box: 32 Folder: 10
Operating Committee - Meeting minutes, 1970
Box: 33 Folder: 1
Resident Members of the Committee of Fellows - Meeting minutes, 1965
Box: 33 Folder: 2
Space Committee, 1977

General

Box: 33 Folder: 3
Sloan Grant, 1970
Box: 33 Folder: 4-5
Report of Laboratory and Research Activities, 1975 - 1977
Box: 33 Folder: 6
Report on Laboratory Staffing and Publications, 1976

Salk Memoranda

Scope and Content

Series 7) SALK INSTITUTE: Files documenting Orgel's association and interaction with the Salk Institute, arranged in six subseries: A) Chemical Evolution Laboratory, B) Faculty, C) Fellows, D) General, E) Salk Memoranda, and F) Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates.

A) Chemical Evolution Laboratory: Annual scientific reports of the Chemical Evolution Laboratory, 1975-1980.

B) Faculty: Minutes of faculty meetings and senior resident faculty meetings, 1976 – 1986.

C) Fellows: Annual reports, correspondence, and meeting minutes of the Fellows Committee, Operating Committee, and Space Committee, 1965–1977

D) General: Reports regarding laboratory and research activities, and staffing and publications, and information on the Sloan grant, 1970-1977.

E) Salk Memoranda: Memoranda from Jacob Bronowski, Frederic De Hoffmann and Edwin Lennox, 1965–1982.

F) Salk Institute Biotechnology/Industrial Associates: Files related to the commercial development of biotechnology research by Orgel and his associates, 1981-1988.

Box: 33 Folder: 7
Bronowski, Jacob, 1967 - 1974
Box: 34 Folder: 1-6
De Hoffmann, Frederic, 1970 - 1982
Box: 34 Folder: 7
Lennox, Edwin L., 1965 - 1974
Box: 34 Folder: 8
Salk business, 1965 - 1971