Harry Pence Papers, 1893-1976 (bulk 1901-1945) (MSS 0144)

Restrictions: Contents of box 46 are restricted for preservation. Permission to access these items is granted at the descretion of the the Program Director.

Extent: 23.7 Linear feet (41 archive boxes, 3 shoeboxes, 8 flat boxes, 3 map case folders, 8 art bin items, and 1 tube)

Papers of Captain Harry Langley Pence, U.S. Naval Academy graduate (1906), career United States Navy officer (1902-1945), and Red Cross administrator (1945-1946). The papers contain correspondence, diaries, memorabilia, memoranda, orders, photographs, reports and Pence's scrapbooks.

Harry Langley Pence was born on September 23, 1882, in Sardina, Ohio. Pence graduated from Hillsboro High School in 1901, attended the Ohio State University (1901-1902) and graduated from the United States Naval Academy with a bachelor of science degree in 1906.

Following his graduation from the Naval Academy, Pence spent the majority of his shipboard assignments serving as either a gunnery officer, executive officer or captain aboard a number of ships including the USS Maryland (1906-1907, 1909-1912), USS Rainbow (1907), USS Kearsarge (1908), USS Illinois (1913), USS Rhode Island (1914-1915), USS Texas (1916-1918), USS McFarland (1921-1924), USS Tennessee (1927-1932), USS Memphis (1932-1934), USS Hopkins (1934), and the USS Moffett (1938). Pence served aboard the USS Kearsarge while it was attached to the Great White Fleet that circumnavigated the world from 1907 to 1909. While aboard the USS Texas, Pence was present during the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet to the British Grand Fleet.

In 1919, Pence was appointed port officer in Trieste and was responsible for four additional ports -- Fiume, Spalato, Gravosa (Ragusa), and Gallipoli (Italy). From 1920-1921, he was assigned to the United States Embassy in London, England, where he served as the assistant naval attache and later acting naval attache.

Following this assignment, Pence assumed command of the USS McFarland, 1921-1924, in Constantinople. On its first tour, the USS McFarland served as flag tender to the commander of the United States Naval Forces in Europe - Vice Admiral Niblack. On the USS McFarland's second tour, Pence commanded a division of destroyers in the Near East under Admiral Bristol, high commander.

Pence held several posts as an instructor, the first at the US Naval Academy in the Department of Navigation (1912-1914) and at the United States Naval War College (1924-1927) in Newport, Rhode Island, as a student, then as an instructor. Pence returned to Naval War College from 1934-1937 as an instructor and head of the Department of Intelligence.

From 1939 until his retirement from the Navy on March 31, 1945, Pence's assignments were administrative. From 1939-1941, he served as chief of staff of the 6th, 7th and 8th Naval Districts while serving as captain of the yard, Charleston, South Carolina. From 1941-1944, Pence served as a liaison officer to the General Board of the Navy, which advised the Secretary of the Navy on all matters of naval policy. Collaterally, from 1943-1944, Pence served as the Navy Department liaison officer for matters concerning the military government program - Civil Affairs. From 1944-1945, Pence was a senior member of the Subcommittee on Far Eastern Affairs with the Joint Post War Committee (Joint Chiefs of Staff).

After retiring from the Navy, Pence accepted a one year position with the American Red Cross. Pence worked with the relief program responsible for prisoners of war in the Far East and as a member of the general committee to amend the Geneva Conventions of 1929.

Pence lived in La Jolla, California, where he worked as a real estate broker until his death on March 5, 1977.

The papers of Captain Harry Pence (1882-1977) document the career of a United States Naval officer who served during the first half of the twentieth century, beginning with his graduation from the United States Naval Academy in 1906 through his retirement in 1945. Pence sailed with the Great White Fleet, witnessed the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet during World War I, served at overseas duty stations including Trieste and Constantinople, was a Navy administrator during World War II, and worked on prisoner of war issues with the Red Cross. He documented his experiences through letters, journals and photographs. The collection contains voluminous personal correspondence, diaries, memorabilia, memoranda, orders, reports, and other documents collected during Pence's military duty assignments. Also included are materials of visual interest, such as Pence's scrapbooks, albums, photographs and souvenir postcards from his world travels.


The papers were originally processed in 2002, with additions in 2013 and 2017.

Container List


Scope and Content of Series

Series 1) BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS. Arranged in three subseries: A) Personal Materials, B) Education and C) Awards and Certificates.

A) Personal Materials: Includes career summations, mementos collected by Pence, a driver's license, passports, and newspaper clippings about Pence. Arranged alphabetically.

B) Education: Notebooks, yearbooks, assignments, report cards, and exams related to Pence's education at Hillsboro High School, the Ohio State University, the United States Naval Academy, and the United States Naval War College. Included in this series are materials related to the United States Naval Academy Association of the Class of 1906, including the planning of a 50th reunion. Arranged chronologically.

C) Awards and Certificates: Includes numerous certificates of membership including Pence's Bachelor of Science degree certificate from the United States Naval Academy, his certificate of graduation from the United States Naval War College, and his United States Navy certificates of commission. Arranged alphabetically.

Personal Materials

Box: 1 Folder: 1
Career summations, 1945-1976
Box: 1 Folder: 2
Driver's license issued by the Municipalidad de Panama, 1932
Box: 1 Folder: 3
Box: 1 Folder: 4
News clippings about Pence
Box: 1 Folder: 5
Passports, 1919-1921


Box: 1 Folder: 6
Hillsboro High School - Physics notebook and commencement program, 1899-1901
Ohio State University
Box: 1 Folder: 7
English Literature: An Outline, 1901
Box: 1 Folder: 8
Report card, 1901
Box: 1 Folder: 9
Roman Roads: A Study of Highways, 1902
Box: 1 Folder: 10
Yearbook, 1902
United States Naval Academy
Box: 1 Folder: 11
Entrance examination papers for admission, 1896-1902
Box: 1 Folder: 12
Congressional appointment - Includes correspondence, clippings and an invitation, 1902-1906
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 7
Department of Marine Engineering and Naval Construction - Technical drawings, 1903
Box: 2 Folder: 2
English notebook, 1903
Box: 2 Folder: 3
Physics notebook, 1903
Box: 2 Folder: 4
Seamanship and Ordnance notebook, used while Pence served aboard the U.S.S. Indiana and the U.S.S. Hartford, 1903
Box: 2 Folder: 5
Youngster exams notebook, 1903-1904
Box: 2 Folder: 6
Chemistry notebook, 1904
Box: 2 Folder: 7
Navigation notebook, 1904
Box: 3 Folder: 1
Report cards, 1902-1906
Box: 3 Folder: 2-4
Yearbooks, 1904-1906
Box: 3 Folder: 5
Modern Languages - French and Spanish, final exam, 1906
Box: 3 Folder: 6
Navigation notebook, 1906
Box: 4 Folder: 1-3
USS Maryland papers, 1906-1910

Includes a cruise journal with list of ports visited, notes, drawings, and a photograph, and gunnery papers.

Box: 4 Folder: 4
Final exams, 1907
Box: 4 Folder: 5
International Law notebook, 1907
Box: 4 Folder: 6-10
United States Naval Academy - Association of the Class of 1906, 1937-1956

Charts, bulletins, correspondence, and reunion programs and photographs.

Naval War College
Box: 4 Folder: 11
"Naval officer taking War College course" cartoon, 1921
Box: 4 Folder: 12
Theses on Command, Policy, and Strategy and Logistics, 1924
Box: 4 Folder: 13
Tactical Problem 1 (Tac. 10, Mod. 8), Blue situation, 1924
Box: 4 Folder: 14
Thesis on tactics, 1925
Box: 4 Folder: 15
Joint Problem No. 1 (Strat. 80, Tact 101), Blue situation, 1925
Box: 4 Folder: 16
Strategy and Tactics - Notes, 1925
Box: 4 Folder: 17
Tactical Problem III (Tact. 96, Mod. I) - Day cruising formation, 1925
Box: 4 Folder: 18
Strategic Problem V (Strat. 74, Mod. 1) - Screens and operations

Awards and Certificates

Box: 4 Folder: 19
Army-Navy "E" Award, 1943
Box: 5 Folder: 1
Certificate of Confirmation, 1941
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 5
Certificate of Membership - Islam Temple, the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, 1913
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 5
Certificates of Membership - Domain of Neptunus Rex, 1912

Poor condition.

Box: 5 Folder: 3
Certificate of Membership - National Geographic Society, 1934
Box: 5 Folder: 4
Navy Cross - Copy negative
Box: 5 Folder: 5
Navy Cross and Navy Expeditionary Medal, dress ribbons
Box: 5 Folder: 6
United States Naval Academy - Bachelor of science degree certificate, 1937
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 3
United States Naval Academy - Certificate of graduation, 1908
Box: 5 Folder: 8
United States Naval Institute - Membership, 1913
Box: 5 Folder: 9
United States Naval War College - Certificate of completion, 1925
Box: 5 Folder: 10
United States Navy - Certificates of commission: Ensign (1908); Lieutenant, j.g. (1908); Lieutenant (1911); Lieutenant Commander (1917); Commander (1918); and Captain (1931)
Box: 5 Folder: 11
Unidentified certificate


Scope and Content of Series

Series 2) MILITARY DUTY POSTS: Materials documenting the full span of Pence's naval career. Arranged in eighteen subseries: A) Orders and Professional Papers, B) USS Kearsarge (1908), C) USS Maryland (1909-1912), D) United States Naval Academy Instructor (1912-1914), E) USS Rhode Island (1914-1915), F) USS Texas (1917-1918), G) Port Officer, Trieste (1919), H) Naval Attaché, England (1920-1921), I) USS McFarland (1921-1924), J) US Naval War College Instructor (1925-1927), K) USS Tennessee (1927-1932), L) Navy Department (1929-1932), M) US Naval War College Instructor (1934-1937), N) Squadron Eleven Commander (1937-1938), O) Chief of Staff, Commander of the Yard (1939-1941), P) General Board (1941-1944), Q) Naval Operations (1943-1944), and R) Joint Chiefs of Staff (1944-1945).

A) Orders and Professional Papers: An assortment of documentation relevant to the full arc of Pence's career, including orders, information on his service record, curriculum vitae, and reports.

B) USS Kearsarge (1908): One folder of notes related to target practice.

C) USS Maryland (1909-1912): Logs, itineraries and notes.

D) United States Naval Academy - Instructor (1912-1913): Pence's examination and practical work notebooks.

E) USS Rhode Island (1914-1915): Blueprint charts, memorandums, orders, reports, and notes.

F) USS Texas (1916-1918): Reports, notes, orders, photographs, charts, correspondence, memorandums, and an ode. The folder entitled "Capitulation of the German High Seas Fleet" contains several drafts of Pence's firsthand account of the German High Seas Fleet surrendering to the British Grand Fleet.

G) Port Officer, Trieste (1919): Correspondence, memorandums, logs, journals, orders, intelligence reports, and a propaganda poster. The port officer log provides a detailed account of vessel and personnel traffic through Trieste during Pence's assignment as port officer.

H) Naval Attaché, England (1920-1921): Lists of foreign diplomatic personnel in London, a newspaper clipping, an official itinerary, a memorandum, and a log related to an eighteen day trip through Europe.

I) USS McFarland (1921-1924): Correspondence, memoranda, movement orders, telegrams, a list of Americans in Constantinople during 1922, and Pence's ship diary. The diary documents the ship's activities and movements during Pence's command. The list of Americans in Constantinople during 1922 indicates Ernest Hemingway as an American in Constantinople at the time.

J) US Naval War College Instructor (1925-1927): Teaching material, typescripts, reports, and a speech.

K) USS Tennessee (1927-1929): Telegrams, memorandums and memorabilia.

L) Navy Department (1929-1932): Correspondence, reports, typescripts, teaching material, speeches, reprints, newspaper clippings, a map, and memorabilia. Well-represented in this subseries are Pence's assignments as naval aid to Dr. Enrique Olaya Herrera (at the time, President-elect of Columbia) during Olaya Hererra's 1930 tour of America and the establishment of the Army Industrial College, a joint venture with the Army designed to train personnel for procurement planning.

M) US Naval War College Instructor (1934-1937): Lecture notes, a two-year course proposal and a list of administrative staff. This subseries supplements Subseries J) US Naval War College - Instructor (1925-1927).

N) Squadron Eleven Commander (1937-1938): One note, and a memorandum.

O) Chief of Staff Captain of the Yard (1939-1941): A speech, newspaper clippings, programs, and a report related to the launching of the USS Grayson.

P) General Board (1941-1944): Memorandums, meeting minutes, a notebook, and a list of Japanese citizens who attended the United States Naval Academy. Of particular interest are the meeting minutes entitled "General Board - Security Technical Committee."

Q) Naval Operations (1943-1944): Correspondence, memorandums, commencement addresses, field reports, charts, notebooks, and reprints. It documents Pence's participation at the administrative and planning level with the burgeoning Civil Affairs Division, which later became part of the US Army's Special Operations. Of interest are the Civil Affairs Committee memorandums, the correspondence with field officers, field reports, and the development of the US Naval School of Military Government and Administration at Columbia University.

R) Joint Chiefs of Staff (1944-1945) subseries contains committee meeting minutes, memorandums, reports, and surrender terms. Pence served on the Joint Post War Committee, and was a senior member of the Subcommittee on Far Eastern Affairs. Included are copies of the surrender terms for both Japan and Germany.

Orders and Professional Papers

Box: 29 Folder: 1-4
Orders and official memoranda, 1906-1946
Box: 29 Folder: 5
Clippings and ephemera, 1907-1922
Box: 29 Folder: 6-9
Qualifying examinations for Lieutenant, Commander and Captain, 1911-1912, 1922, 1931
Box: 29 Folder: 10
Report of record target practice, 1907
Box: 29 Folder: 11
Professional correspondence - Medals, recognition, etc., 1908-1934
Box: 30 Folder: 4
Officer's record of fitness ledgers, 1908-1939

Includes detailed summary of career assignments.

Box: 29 Folder: 12
American Commission to Negotiate Peace - Report by the British Admiralty on the scuttling of the German Fleet at Scapa Flow, 1919 August 22
Box: 29 Folder: 13
Extracts from service record, ca. 1921
Box: 29 Folder: 14
Officer lists, ca. 1924
Box: 29 Folder: 15
Professional correspondence, 1924, 1937-1939
Box: 29 Folder: 16
US Department of State - Protocol guide, 1932
Box: 29 Folder: 17
Notes and documents on military and personal characteristics for officer fitness reports, 1934, 1938
Box: 29 Folder: 18
Powell, Paulus P. Report of Experiences in Travelling From Shanghai, China to Berlin, Germany via the Trans-Siberian Route, 1936 May 15
Box: 29 Folder: 19
Correspondence - Commander Destroyers, Battle Force, 1939
Box: 29 Folder: 20
Office evaluations, 1939
Box: 29 Folder: 21
Correspondence - Selection Board, 1939
Box: 29 Folder: 22
Curriculum vitae and career summary, 1945
Box: 29 Folder: 23
Report on living conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1946 March 1

USS Kearsarge (1908)

Box: 5 Folder: 12
Notes on Record Target Practice, 1908

USS Maryland (1909-1912)

Box: 5 Folder: 13
Cruise log, 1911 June-1912 June
Box: 5 Folder: 14
Memorabilia, 1911

US Naval Academy Instructor (1912-1914)

Box: 5 Folder: 15
Mathematics and Mechanics - Practical work and examinations, 1912-1914
Box: 5 Folder: 16-17
Navigation - Practical work and examinations, 1912-1914

USS Rhode Island (1913-1916)

Box: 6 Folder: 1
Gunnery material - Memoranda, orders and report, 1914-1916
Box: 6 Folder: 2
Landing Force in Tampico - Includes field orders, 1913-1914

USS Texas (1915-1918)

Box: 6 Folder: 3
Gunnery material - Includes bulletins, memoranda, orders, and summaries, 1916-1918
Box: 6 Folder: 4
Memoranda - Subjects include, "Assignment to Duty" and "Service Record - Connection Promotion to Grade of Commander" and an afternoon tea in Edinburgh, 1917-1918
Box: 6 Folder: 5
Odes to the Texas, 1917
Box: 6 Folder: 6
Operations material - Includes memoranda, orders, operation order for the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet, and correspondence, 1916-1918
Box: 6 Folder: 7
Pence, Harry. "Capitulation of the German High Seas Fleet", 1916-1918
Box: 6 Folder: 8
World War Submarine Campaign against Entente Commerce - Blueprint chart, 1915-1918

Port Officer, Trieste (1919)

Box: 6 Folder: 9
Administration and orders, 1917-1919
Box: 6 Folder: 10-11
Correspondence, 1919
Box: 6 Folder: 12
Fiume - Political and economic conditions. Includes typescript copies of hand bills and a typescript copy of an intelligence report, 1919
Box: 6 Folder: 13
Identification, announcing Pence as a U.S. Naval officer, authored by Pence, 1919
Box: 6 Folder: 14
Journal - Contains Pence's observations during his "special inspection" duty, particularly the Whitehead Torpedo Works, as well as enemy vessels based at Pola, Istria, 1918 October 7-1919 June 19
Box: 6 Folder: 15
Port Officer's Log, 1919 January 25-June 10
Box: 6 Folder: 16
Reports, 1919
Box: 6 Folder: 17
Poster - An Italian propaganda poster recounting Italy's involvement in World War I, 1919
Box: 6 Folder: 18
USS Square Wheel Log, 1919

Acting Naval Attaché, England (1920-1921)

Box: 7 Folder: 1
Foreign Embassies and Legations in London, 1920-1921
Box: 7 Folder: 2
Itinerary to London, 1921
Box: 7 Folder: 3
List of names - Unidentified. [Possibly related to Pence's appointment to the US Embassy in London], 1920
Box: 7 Folder: 4
Memorandum and report, 1921
Box: 7 Folder: 5
Pence, Harry. "Trip of Eighteen Days thru Europe", 1921

USS McFarland (1921-1924)

Box: 29 Folder: 24
American Consulate General report on the occupation of Smyrna, 1922 November 18
Box: 29 Folder: 25
USS McFarland - Pence diary and observations, 1922 October-1923 April
Box: 29 Folder: 26
USS McFarland - Pence personal diary and observations, 1923 January-April
Box: 7 Folder: 6
Diary reports - Typescript copies of Pence's ship diary while aboard the McFarland, 1922-1923
Box: 7 Folder: 7
List of Americans in Constantinople, 1922

Listed under the heading "Miscellaneous Americans," subheading "H," is Ernest M. Hemingway.

Box: 7 Folder: 8
Operations material - Includes movement orders, correspondence, telegrams, and an extract from a typescript entitled "Turkey" by Emil Lengyel, 1921-1924

US Naval War College Instructor (1925-1927)

Box: 7 Folder: 9
Pence, Harry. "Suggestions for Conducting Chart and Board Maneuvers," "Lessons Learned: Junior Class," and "Comments on Battle Fleet Tactical Exercise", 1926-1927
Box: 7 Folder: 10
Suggestions Submitted [by Pence] for an Improved War College, 1926-1927
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 17
Tactical Estimate of the Situation - Form developed by Pence and used at the US Naval War College, 1927
Box: 7 Folder: 12
Welcome Address - Class of 1927

USS Tennessee (1927-1929)

Box: 7 Folder: 13
Memorabilia, 1927-1929
Box: 7 Folder: 14
Patrol Organization - San Francisco, CA, 1928
Box: 7 Folder: 15
Telegrams and memoranda, 1928-1929

Navy Department (1929-1932)

Box: 7 Folder: 16
Joint Army/Navy Munitions Board - Contains correspondence, reports, recommendations, acts of Congress, estimates, and charts, 1930-1931
Box: 7 Folder: 17
Material Procurement Planning, Army Industrial College - Includes speeches and lectures delivered at the Army Industrial College by Pence, Bogman, William Malone, John Pershing, and Franklin Steinwachs, 1930-1931
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 16
Military Attaché to Dr. Enrique Olaya Herrera - Map of Dr. Olaya Herrera's inspection of Chicago, 1930
Box: 7 Folder: 19
Military Attaché to Dr. Enrique Olaya Herrera - Newspaper clippings, telegrams, invitations, a map, and correspondence, 1930
Box: 7 Folder: 20
Pence, Harry. "Material Procurement Planning", 1931-1947

US Naval War College Instructor (1934-1937)

Box: 7 Folder: 21
Conference of Ambassadors - Lecture notes related to various treaties
Box: 7 Folder: 22
Neutrality - Contains lecture notes, memoranda, newspaper clippings, typescripts, and reprints, 1935-1936
Box: 7 Folder: 23
Singapore-Auckland Line - Lecture notes and slide index, 1935
Box: 8 Folder: 1
Singapore-Torres Strait - Annotated lecture notes, 1934
Box: 8 Folder: 2
Strategic Areas: Hawaiian Islands - Annotated lecture notes, 1936
Box: 8 Folder: 3
Tabulation of Policies of the United States, 1934
Box: 8 Folder: 4
Tactics - Lecture notes regarding the review of the junior class theses
Box: 8 Folder: 5
Two Year Course Proposal, 1934
Box: 8 Folder: 6
United States Naval War College - List of administrative staff and instructors, 1936-1937

Squadron Eleven Commander (1937-1938)

Box: 8 Folder: 7
Change of Command Ceremony, USS Moffett - Memorandum, 1938
Box: 8 Folder: 8
Engagement Tactics, USS Hopkins - Notes

Chief of Staff, Captain of the Yard (1939-1941)

Box: 8 Folder: 9
Launching ceremony, USS Grayson - Includes a speech, program and newspaper clippings, 1940

Photographs of the ceremony are located in the PHOTOGRAPHS series, subseries Events.

Box: 8 Folder: 10
Report of the President - Officer's Club, 1940
Box: 8 Folder: 15
Security Technical Committee - Includes material related to foreign affairs and reconstruction, 1942-1943

General Board (1941-1944)

Box: 8 Folder: 11
Education and Training of Children and Youths - Includes two memoranda entitled "Education and Training of German Children and Youths" and "Education and Training of Japanese Children and Youths," as well as a typescript entitled "Citizenry", 1942
Box: 8 Folder: 12
Memoranda, 1940-1944
Box: 8 Folder: 13
Notebook - Includes the following subjects: "Colored," "Maas," "Plant Facilities," "E.D.O. Command," "Fortify Guam," and "Commodore", 1941-1942
Box: 8 Folder: 14
List of names of Japanese who attended the United States Naval Academy, 1941

Naval Operations (1943-1944)

Box: 8 Folder: 16
447th Bomb Group Combat Missions - Charts, 1943-1945
Civil Affairs Division of the War Department
Box: 8 Folder: 17
Administrative correspondence, 1942-1943
Box: 9 Folder: 1-3
Administrative correspondence, 1943-1945
Box: 9 Folder: 4-7
Civil Affairs Committee - Memoranda, 1943-1944
Box: 9 Folder: 8
Establishment of the Occupied Areas Section (OP-50-E) - Report
Box: 9 Folder: 9-10
Field officer correspondence, 1942-1944
Box: 10 Folder: 1-2
Field officer correspondence, 1944
Box: 10 Folder: 3
Military Government Activities United States Navy - Report, 1944
Box: 10 Folder: 4
Occupied Areas Section (OP-50-E) - Field report, 1943-1944
Box: 10 Folder: 5
House Joint Resolution 55, "Providing for the Administration and Protection of Territories and Possessions of the United States by the Navy Department", 1945
Box: 10 Folder: 6
Interdepartmental Policy Committee and Coordinating Committee, 1943
Box: 10 Folder: 7
Organizational charts, 1944
Box: 10 Folder: 8
Pence, Harry. "Civil Affairs Program" - Report compiled by Pence for James B. Forrestal, Under Secretary of the Navy, 1943
Box: 10 Folder: 9
Pence, Harry. "Memorandum Concerning History of Naval Military Government"
Box: 10 Folder: 10
Pence, Harry. "Supplementary Comments on Training and Other Features of Civil Affairs (Military Government)", 1946
United States Naval School of Military Government and Administration at Columbia University
Box: 10 Folder: 11
Commencement address
Box: 11 Folder: 1
Correspondence, memoranda, speeches, and several lists of instructors and speakers, 1942
Box: 11 Folder: 2
Correspondence, memoranda, class photograph, speeches, instructional staff roster, list of curriculum, and an alphabetical list of officers, 1942-1943
Box: 11 Folder: 3
Two published articles entitled "Military Government School: Its Alumni Face a Big Test in the Marshalls" and "The Navy Governs the Marshalls: Classroom Theories Prove Successful in Handling Natives on Pacific Atolls," and a reprint entitled "Military Government in the Navy", 1943

Joint Chiefs of Staff (1944-1945)

Box: 11 Folder: 4
Joint Post War Committee - Subcommittee for the Far East - Memoranda and meeting minutes, 1944-1945
Box: 11 Folder: 5-6
Joint Post War Committee - Subcommittee for the Far East - Military Government in the Japanese Empire and Manchuria, includes Korea and Formosa, 1944
Box: 11 Folder: 7
Memorandum Study of Naval Patrol and Air Surveillance to Enforce Armistice Terms upon Japan, 1944
Box: 11 Folder: 8
Nature and Consequences of Unconditional Surrender under International Law - Memorandum prepared by Professor P. Jessup, May-44
Box: 11 Folder: 9-10
Special Committee on Migration and Settlement, Documents of, 1943
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC)
Box: 11 Folder: 11
Memoranda and minutes related to the surrender of Japan - Includes a document entitled "Unconditional Surrender of Japan", 1942-1945
Box: 12 Folder: 1
Minutes of the first thirteen meetings of the SWNCC - Pacific Far Eastern Sub-Committee (PFESC), 1945
Box: 12 Folder: 2
Surrender Terms - Germany, 1944


Scope and Content of Series

Series 3) RED CROSS: Correspondence, memorandums, photographs, reports, and newspaper clippings related to the year that Pence worked for the American Red Cross. He was responsible for the Relief Program for prisoners of war, especially the Far East and was a member of the general committee to amend the 1929 Geneva Convention. This series contains approximations of American POWs and civilian internees in all known Japanese prison and internee camps, an overview of the quantity and quality of food and medical supplies distributed to American POWs and civilian internees, and interviews with former American POWs from the Far East. The folders related to the 1929 Geneva Convention revisions contain numerous heavily annotated copies of the 1929 Geneva Convention Treaty, as well as correspondence and memorandums related to suggested changes.

Box: 12 Folder: 3
American Red Cross News Service, [1945]
Box: 12 Folder: 4
Chronological Record of Efforts to Arrange for Shipment of Supplies to American Nationals in Far East, [1945]
Box: 12 Folder: 5
Data on Prisoner of War, Far East - Summaries, reports, tables, press releases, and correspondence regarding American and Allied POWs and civilian internees, 1945-1946
Box: 12 Folder: 6
Diplomatic list - Department of State, British Red Cross, 1946
Box: 12 Folder: 7
Food relief - Correspondence, memoranda and photographs relating to the distribution, quality, quantity, and improvement of food supplies sent to American POWs in the Far East, 1943-1946
Box: 12 Folder: 8
Japanese Internees - United States, 1941-1946
Box: 12 Folder: 9
Japanese Prisoner of War Payment - Inscribed with "Pay of an American Pvt. POW in Jap Prison Camps for one day, Toyama POW camp, Toyama, Japan. June 1 to September 6, 1945. Col. C.A.C.", 1945
Box: 12 Folder: 10
Medical relief - Lists, instructions, photographs, and correspondence relating to the distribution, quality, quantity, and improvements of medical supplies sent to American POWs in the Far East, 1942-1945
Box: 12 Folder: 11
Pence, Harry. "American Prisoners in the Far East," volume 1, number 1 of Far Eastern Prisoner of War Bulletin, 1945
Box: 12 Folder: 12
Pence, Harry. "Red Cross Relief to Prisoners of War - Far East - World War II", 1947
Box: 12 Folder: 13
Prisoner of War and Civilian Internees Interviews, Far East - Includes a translation of "Regulations Pertaining to Treatment of POWs in Japan," as outlined by the commanders of the Prison Escort Navy of the Great Japanese Empire; a "Summary of Steps Taken by the Department of State in Behalf of American Nationals in Japanese Custody;" a bulletin of the Liberation of Philippines Internment Camp #1; as well as several accounts of American former POW and civilian internee experiences while imprisoned by the Japanese, 1943-1946
Box: 12 Folder: 14
Prisoner of War Release Kits - Includes a list entitled "Supplies Received by POWs," itemized shipping lists as well as numerous memoranda and correspondence, 1943-1946
Prisoner of War Relief (Far East) - 1929 Geneva Convention Revisions
Box: 12 Folder: 15-16
Correspondence, memos, drafts, recommendations, and revisions, 1941-1946
Box: 13 Folder: 1
Reference material - Two heavily annotated copies of the 1929 Geneva Convention Treaty, 1932-1946
Box: 13 Folder: 2-3
Accounting - Includes correspondence and memoranda related to the disbursement of relief funds, 1944-1946
Box: 13 Folder: 4-5
Administrative correspondence, 1945-1946
Box: 13 Folder: 6
Report of the American Red Cross, prepared by Maurice Pate, Director, Prisoner of War Relief - Supplementary relief supplies for American Prisoners of War in Europe, 1945


Scope and Content of Series

Series 4) DIARIES AND NOTEBOOKS. Arranged in two subseries: A) Naval Diaries and B) Personal Diaries.

A) Naval Diaries: Journals in which Pence recorded the activities and personal observations during assignments. Often, a cruise log is included at the front of each journal designating the ship Pence was assigned to, ports visited, distance travelled, as well as additional comments. Of particular interest is Diary - Volume 2, which includes the time Pence spent aboard the USS Kearsarge as it cruised with the Great White Fleet and Diary - Volume 4, which recounts the German High Seas Fleet surrendering to the British Grand Fleet. Arranged chronologically.

B) Personal Diaries: Although some of the Personal Diaries are dated during Pence's service in the Navy, they are distinct from the Naval Diaries in that they do not reflect information or observations regarding his military assignments. The diaries contain personal observations related to Pence's civilian daily routine, life events, as well as an occasional record of real estate transactions. Arranged chronologically.

Naval Diaries

Box: 13 Folder: 7-9
Volumes 1-3, 1906-1918
Box: 14 Folder: 1
Unnumbered volume - Contains numerous recipes, 1915
Box: 14 Folder: 2-4
Volume 4, 1918
Box: 14 Folder: 5
Volume 5, 1918-1920
Box: 14 Folder: 6
Volume (Black), 1922
Box: 15 Folder: 1
Volume (Yellow), 1922-1923
Box: 15 Folder: 2-6
Volumes 6-9, 1923-1939
Box: 15 Folder: 7
Volume 10, 1939-1948

Entries dated from April 1, 1945 to 1948 reflect Pence's civilian life.

Box: 16 Folder: 1
Logs - Sea Voyages. Typescript transcription of the logs found in Pence's diaries, 1906-1938

Personal Diaries

Box: 16 Folder: 2
Juvenile diary, 1893-1895
Box: 16 Folder: 3
Vacation diary, 1925
Box: 16 Folder: 4
Hawaiian vacation diary, 1943
Box: 16 Folder: 5
Untitled diary, 1948-1953
Box: 16 Folder: 6
Untitled diary, 1953-1970
Box: 16 Folder: 7
Washington, D.C., New York and Chicago travel diary, 1962
Box: 16 Folder: 8
Asia trip diary, undated
Box: 42 Folder: 1
Luella Pence (mother) notebook and diary, "My Trip to See Harry and the East", ca. 1913
Box: 42 Folder: 2
Notebook and ledger entitled "Peggy's Early Years", ca. 1926-1941
Box: 42 Folder: 3
Pence notebook, 1972
Box: 42 Folder: 4
Japan travel diary and related correspondence on "Cruise to the Orient", 1958


Scope and Content of Series

Series 5) PHOTOGRAPHS. Arranged in eight subseries: A) Portraits of Pence, B) Pence with Others, C) Others, D) Ships and Aircraft, E) Places, F) Events, and G) Photograph Albums.

A) Portraits of Pence

B) Pence with Others: Arranged alphabetically by name of the other person. Includes photographs of crew members who served with Pence aboard various ships.

C) Others: Arranged alphabetically by personal name. People of particular interest are President Warren Harding (inscribed to Pence), Admiral Edward Kalbfus, Admiral Niblack, and Dr. Enrique Olaya Herrera.

D) Ships and Aircraft: Arranged alphabetically by ship name. Includes photographic prints of nearly every ship Pence served aboard or commanded, as well as numerous ships of interest to Pence. Also included are photographs of aircraft (zeppelins and planes).

E) Places: Arranged alphabetically by location. The photographs reflect the foreign ports, cities, and countries Pence visited during his assignments and cruises. Of interest are the folders entitled "Balkans," "Russia - Odessa" and "Scapa Flow." The "Scapa Flow" folder contains an image of the German Fleet at the Scapa Flow. In addition to the foreign locales visited by Pence, there is a folder titled "Miscellaneous US Locales" containing photographs taken in the United States from both Pence's official assignments, as well as vacation and civilian excursions.

F) Events: Arranged alphabetically by event title. Of interest are the folders entitled "Battle of Jutland," "Surrender of the German Fleet (WWI)" and "Surrender of the German High Seas Fleet." The "Battle of Jutland" folder contains prints of a number of British vessels involved in the Jutland engagement, including the sinking of the HMS Invincible. The "Surrender of the German Fleet (WWI)" folder contains an oblique aerial image of the surrender taken from the HMS Seymore (a dirigible).

G) Photograph Albums: Albums documenting Pence's professional and personal experiences during several military assignments including documentation of the Great White Fleet tour. Albums are arranged chronologically.

Portraits of Pence

Box: 17 Folder: 1
Hillsboro High School, Hillsboro, Ohio, 1898-1901, 1908

Include cadet group portraits, tiny print of acquaintance Walter Kelley, and real photo postcard of the 1908 Hillsboro Expo "Pumpkin Palace."

Box: 17 Folder: 2
Cavite, Philippines, 1908
Box: 17 Folder: 3
Ensign, 1908
Box: 17 Folder: 4
Shanghai, 1908
Box: 17 Folder: 5
Lieutenant, 1911-1918

Includes snapshots of Pence in a kite balloon.

Box: 17 Folder: 6
Commander, 1918-1931
Box: 17 Folder: 7
Berlin, Germany, 1920
Box: 17 Folder: 8
London, England, 1920-1921
Box: 17 Folder: 9
Constantinople, Turkey, 1921-1923
Box: 17 Folder: 10
Full dress, 1927
Box: 17 Folder: 11
Captain, 1931-1945
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 3
Captain - Oversize, 1931-1945
Box: 17 Folder: 12
Honolulu, Hawaii, 1943
Box: 17 Folder: 13
Civilian, undated

Pence with Others

Box: 17 Folder: 14
Austins - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Box: 17 Folder: 15
Buchner-Schneidel, Nora, 1956
Box: 17 Folder: 16
Elliott, Captain
Box: 17 Folder: 17
Elnis, Mr. and Mrs. and Ruth Pence - Nantucket, Massachusetts
Box: 17 Folder: 18
Hoyts - Hillsboro, Ohio
Box: 17 Folder: 19
Mannix, Captain [Daniel Pratt] - Constantinople, Turkey
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1
Nicholson, E.H.M., O.S.E., R.N.; Parker, O.B.E.; Zeitler, W., U.S. Navy; and Clerke, C.B.E., Late R.N - At the Hatfield Armour Piercing Projectile Factory, Sheffield, England
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1
Official Lunch for President-Elect of Columbia, Dr. Enrique Olaya Herrera
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1
Planning and Estimators Association Annual get-together, Washington, D.C., 1920
Box: 17 Folder: 20
Publicity photographs related to a movie filmed aboard the USS Tennessee
Box: 17 Folder: 21
Rizzo, Commander
Box: 17 Folder: 22
Seymour - New Orleans, 1940
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1
United States Embassy - London, England, 1921
Box: 17 Folder: 23
United States Naval Academy
Oversize: FB-322 Folder: 2
United States Naval Academy - Class portraits, 1906
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 12
United States Naval War College - Class photographs, 1925-1937
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1
USS Hopkins - Crew
Box: 17 Folder: 24
USS Maryland - Officers and Crew

Includes reunion portrait, 1938.

Oversize: FB-322 Folder: 1
USS Maryland - Officers and Crew
Box: 17 Folder: 25
USS McFarland - Officers
Oversize: MC-141-07
USS McFarland - Crew
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1
USS McFarland - Crew
Box: 17 Folder: 26
USS Memphis - Crew, undated
Oversize: MC-999-76
USS Memphis - Crew in Balboa Harbor, Panama Canal Zone, 1933
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 7
USS Moffett - Crew, 1938
Oversize: MC-141-07
USS Rhode Island - Crew, 1915
Box: 17 Folder: 27
USS Tennessee - Crew
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 7
USS Tennessee - Crew
Box: 17 Folder: 28
Wisecup, Gerald, Leone Pence and Peg Allen
Box: 17 Folder: 29
Unidentified and family
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 1


Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 2
Barclay, McClelland, 1942
Box: 17 Folder: 30
Barracco, Stanislao Luigi Maria Alfonsa

Baron Barracco as an infant.

Box: 17 Folder: 31
Black, Franklin (as infant)
Box: 17 Folder: 32
Buckleys, 1922
Box: 17 Folder: 33
Burroughs, Harold, 1945
Box: 17 Folder: 34
Carpenter, Alfred, 1922
Box: 17 Folder: 35
Crosby, Commander Paul, Captain Wallace and Margaret Austin
Box: 17 Folder: 36
Crosse, 1907
Box: 17 Folder: 37
de Rochemont, Louis (as infant), 1930
Box: 17 Folder: 38
Doherty, Stephen. [Doherty was Pence's roommate at USNA], 1959
Box: 17 Folder: 39
Eaton, William Edward
Box: 17 Folder: 40
Fraser-Tytler, William Kerr, 1944
Box: 17 Folder: 41
Fulton, W. M
Box: 17 Folder: 42
Grafe, Helen and Jack Holderness
Box: 17 Folder: 43
Hadfield, Robert, 1922
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 11
Harding, Warren - [Inscribed and signed by Harding]
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 11
Harvey, 1921
Box: 17 Folder: 44
Hemphill, Admiral, 1908
Box: 17 Folder: 45
Henderson, Robert, 1944
Box: 17 Folder: 46
Hetfield, Steeles and Coebran - "Cuyama Days"
Box: 17 Folder: 47
Hoeta, Major Vincenzo - Royal Italian Navy, 1922
Box: 17 Folder: 48
Hoffman, Nancy Anderson
Box: 17 Folder: 49
Hoyt, Setta
Box: 17 Folder: 50
Hoyt, W. - Hillsboro, Ohio, 1912
Box: 17 Folder: 51
Hunter, Dolly - Newport, Rhode Island
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 2
Kalbfuss, Edward Clifford
Box: 17 Folder: 52
Lin, S. K. (Chinese Navy), 1945
Box: 18 Folder: 1
Mannix, Captain [Daniel Pratt] - Photographs of Captain Mannix, his wife and others on the French Riviera (Monte Carlo) and other European locales, 1937
Box: 18 Folder: 2
Mills - Associated Press reporter
Box: 18 Folder: 3
Moore, Sam and his Commanding Officers, 1939
Box: 18 Folder: 4
Niblack, Albert P. and Mary, 1921
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 11
Olaya Herrera, Dr. Enrique, 1931
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 2
Old Navy - Photograph of four crew members of the USS Mohican, including a brief biography of each crew member, 1888
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 2
Old Salts - Photograph of crew members of the USS Hartford, including a brief biography of each crew member, 1876-1877
Box: 18 Folder: 5
Pettuegill, George
Box: 18 Folder: 6
Phillips, Richard
Box: 18 Folder: 7
Roosevelt, Franklin D. and Gen. and Mrs. Chiang Kai-shek, 1943
Box: 18 Folder: 8
Rustin, James Moore, 1919
Box: 18 Folder: 9
Smith, Admiral and Mr. Wright - Fishing off Balboa, Panama
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 2
Soroia, Emanuele Filiberto oli - Duke d'Aosta, 1919
Box: 18 Folder: 10
Stillwell, Joe and Hap Arnold
Box: 18 Folder: 11
Stone, Fred, 1917-1919
Box: 18 Folder: 12
Tirelind, D., 1921
Box: 18 Folder: 13
Turner, Mrs. and daughters
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 13
United States Naval War College - Class of 1936-1937
Box: 18 Folder: 14
Van Anken, William R., 1927
Box: 18 Folder: 15
Warner, Oliver, 1918
Box: 18 Folder: 16
Wilson, Mary, 1908
Box: 18 Folder: 17
Yallashu, S. M., 1943
Box: 18 Folder: 18
Unidentified people

Ships and Aircraft

Box: 18 Folder: 19
USS Cuyama
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 4
USS Chesapeake
Box: 18 Folder: 20
USS Heekon, 1939
Box: 18 Folder: 21
USS Hopkins, 1938
Box: 18 Folder: 22-27
Ship photos - USS Illinois, Kearsarge, Los Angeles (zeppelin), Maryland, McFarland, and Memphis
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 4
Oversize ship photos - USS Illinois, Kearsarge, Los Angeles (zeppelin), Maryland, McFarland, Memphis, Rhode Island and Tennessee
Box: 18 Folder: 28
USS Moffett
Box: 18 Folder: 29
USS Rainbow
Box: 18 Folder: 30
USS Tennessee, 1927-1929
Box: 18 Folder: 31
USS Texas, 1918
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 15
USS Texas - Includes Scapa Flow, 1918
Box: 18 Folder: 32
US ships - Miscellaneous A-C
Box: 18 Folder: 33
US ships - Miscellaneous D-L
Box: 18 Folder: 34
US ships - Miscellaneous M-R
Box: 18 Folder: 35
US ships - Miscellaneous S-W
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 7
US ships (oversize) - Miscellaneous
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 4
US ships (oversize) - Miscellaneous
Box: 19 Folder: 1
US ships and submarines - Unidentified
Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 14
US ships and submarines (oversize) - Unidentified
Box: 19 Folder: 2
British ships
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 4
British ships (oversize)
Box: 19 Folder: 3
German vessels


Box: 30 Folder: 1
Abbazia-Istria, 1919

Modern-day Croatia. Single print of women in bathing costume by a river, inscribed, "Baroness Albori."

Box: 19 Folder: 4
Albania, Durazzo Harbor and Scutari
Box: 19 Folder: 5
Amasia [Armenia]
Box: 19 Folder: 6
Austria, Reigersberg, 1936
Box: 19 Folder: 7
Balkans - Photographs of unidentified people being executed by hanging, 1915-1918
Box: 19 Folder: 8
Belgium, Antwerp, 1913
Box: 19 Folder: 9
British West Indies, 1924
Box: 19 Folder: 10
China, 1908
Box: 19 Folder: 11
Danube River
Box: 19 Folder: 12
Box: 19 Folder: 13
England, Huntington, 1928
Box: 19 Folder: 14
England, London - Taken during Pence's assignment as US Naval Attaché, and include photographs of Pence with others, 1920-1921
Box: 19 Folder: 15-16

Also includes Jordan, Luxor, the Nile region, North Africa, and Tunisia.

Box: 19 Folder: 17
France, Verdun (World War I)
Box: 19 Folder: 18
Germany, 1920
Box: 19 Folder: 19
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 5
Gibraltar (oversize)
Box: 20 Folder: 1-2
Greece, Athens

Snapshots and prints mounted on board of temples, the Acropolis, the Parthenon, and other tourist sites.

Box: 20 Folder: 3
Haidar Pacha
Box: 20 Folder: 4
Box: 20 Folder: 5
Box: 20 Folder: 6
Box: 20 Folder: 7
Istria, Pola
Box: 20 Folder: 8
Italy - Florence, Pisa, Rome and Venice
Box: 20 Folder: 9
Italy - Miramare, Fiume and Trieste
Box: 30 Folder: 2
Italy, Trieste, 1919

Page from a photograph album; includes prints of the port, Pence's office, and the main piazza.

Oversize: FB-318 Folder: 1
Italy - Prints of buildings in Pisa
Box: 20 Folder: 10
Japan, 1908
Box: 20 Folder: 11
Box: 20 Folder: 12
Near East
Box: 20 Folder: 13
Nicaragua - Aerial photographs of the evacuation of US Marines from Nicaragua after the Nicaraguan elections, 1933
Box: 20 Folder: 14-15
North Africa
Box: 20 Folder: 16-17
Panama - Some appear to have been taken in the Canal Zone during the 1930s
Box: 20 Folder: 18
Philippines, 1908
Box: 20 Folder: 19
Prinkipo, Sea of Marimora
Box: 20 Folder: 20
Russia, Odessa - Includes photographs of the harbor as well as typhus and starvation victims, 1922
Box: 20 Folder: 21
Samoa and the South Pacific
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 5
Scapa Flow - German Fleet
Box: 21 Folder: 1
Seraglio Point, Constantinople (negative)
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 5
South Carolina, Charleston - Aerial photograph of the navy yard, 1941
Box: 21 Folder: 2
Spain, Grenada
Box: 21 Folder: 3
Switzerland, Zurich
Box: 21 Folder: 4
Syria, Baalbek
Oversize: FB-322 Folder: 3
Tunisia, ca. 1906

Commercial reproduction prints for the tourist trade.

Box: 21 Folder: 5
Box: 21 Folder: 6
United States - Miscellaneous

Includes snapshots of Hawaii, Rainier and Yellowstone national parks, and more.

Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 5
United States - Miscellaneous (oversize)
Box: 21 Folder: 7
United States War College, Newport, Rhode Island
Box: 21 Folder: 8
Washington, D.C. Navy Yard
Box: 21 Folder: 9
Yugoslavia, Cattaro
Box: 21 Folder: 10-11
Unidentified places
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 5
Unidentified places


Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 6
Annexation Demonstration - Fiume, 1917
Box: 21 Folder: 12
Army-Navy "E" Awards - Burke Electric
Oversize: FB-323 Folder: 6
Battle of Jutland - Includes duplicate images of the HMS Birmingham, the sinking of the HMS Invincible, HMS Indefatigable, HMS Warrior, and HMS Achilles, 1916
Box: 21 Folder: 13
Crossing the Line - USS Maryland, 1912
Box: 21 Folder: 14
Crossing the Line - USS Memphis, 1933
Box: 21 Folder: 15
Inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt at Annapolis, Pence marching, 1905
Box: 21 Folder: 16
Inspecting the Model Basin - Washington, D.C. Navy Yard. Admiral of the Fleet, Viscount Jellicoe, 1920