Tram Combs Papers, 1946 - 1964 (MSS 0123)

OFF-SITE STORAGE: COLLECTION STORED OFF-SITE: ALLOW ONE WEEK FOR RETRIEVAL OF MATERIALS

Extent: 4 Linear feet (10 archives boxes)

Papers of Tram Combs, writer and bookseller. Combs lived in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1940s and was associated with many well-known writers. In 1951 he moved to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, where he owned and operated a bookstore. Combs was active in Gay literary circles and contributed to early Gay periodicals such as the Mattachine Review and One. Materials in the collection date from the late 1940s through 1964 and include correspondence, writings, and photographs.

Elisha Trammel (Tram) Combs, Jr. was born 25 September 1924 in Riverview, Alabama, the son of Elisha Trammel, a cotton mill superintendent, and LaFaye Hunt Combs. Elisha Jr. was educated in Southern schools until 1936, when his family moved to San Francisco.

As a young man, Tram was primarily interested in botany, physics, and chemistry. While serving in the U.S. Army Air Force he attended University of Washington in 1943 and 1944. He received a certificate of professional competence in meteorology from University of Chicago in 1945. Combs left the air force in 1946 after serving as a meteorologist and becoming a second lieutenant. For the next two years he attended Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (studying electronics engineering) and the University of California, where he received an A.B. in physics in 1948.

From 1948-51 Combs worked as an oil chemist at the Tidewater-Associated Oil Company in Avon, California. Also during the late 1940's he began to write poetry under the guidance of Kenneth Rexroth, Lawrence Hart and Josephine Miles. Discovering his inclination towards writing and the arts, Combs abruptly changed careers in 1948, becoming the owner and manager of Island Studios, a photographic studio in the Bay Area.

In 1951 Combs moved to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. There, using his talents as a bibliophile, linguist, and poet, he managed and owned Tram Combs Books - a bookshop specializing in the literature and history of middle and southern Americas. Combs also involved himself in community, cultural and political activities in St. Thomas. He served as a founder and trustee of the Virgin Islands Art Museum (1955-56), helped to develop a Boy Scouts of America chapter, worked on building a local Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and participated in disaster relief work. He was an active member of the Gay literary community, both in the Virgin Islands and the U.S., and he regularly submitted articles and suggestions to Gay periodicals such as Mattachine Review and One.

Combs earned the respect of noted contemporary poets such as Kenneth Rexroth and William Carlos Williams -- both of whom wrote forewords to Combs' first book. However, Combs' writing never received public acclaim or commercial success. Some critics complained of his verse's sentimental tone, overabundance of private references, and modifying clauses. Others praised his verbal compression, his unusual typography, his detailed attention to nature and fellow human beings, and his honest, intense, but quiet voice. As William Carlos Williams wrote, "It is in the construction of a verse about an island sunset, that the reader will find what is hidden for him there; not what he thinks he will find but something surprising, amazingly simple and altogether delightful."

Dating from the late 1940s through 1964, the papers document the life, writings, and thought of Tram Combs. The collection includes Combs' personal revelations about his life as a writer and Gay person in the 1950s and early 60s. In addition, the papers provide unusual insights into Gay politics and literary infighting in the United States and the Virgin Islands.

Combs himself organized his own papers quite thoroughly. He often wrote notes explaining how the papers were originally created and how and why the materials were arranged as they were. The present collection is organized in six series: 1) CORRESPONDENCE, 2) NOTEBOOKS AND WORKING SHEETS, 3) TYPESCRIPTS OF VERSE, 4) AUTHOR'S COLLECTION OF SERIALS, 5) WRITINGS OF OTHERS, and 6) PHOTOGRAPHS.

SERIES 1: CORRESPONDENCE

Although it comprises a relatively small portion of the collection, the CORRESPONDENCE is fascinating in that both sides of many exchanges are present. Combs kept carbon copies of even his most mundane letters. Many of these letters are lengthy, gossipy, and full of interesting personal, political and literary trivia. Major correspondents include Auerhahn Press, D. Clark, James Boyer May, the Mattachine Society (one of the first Gay liberation organizations), Robert I. Nesmith, Alan Priest, Gerd Stern and Knute Stiles. The correspondence with Clark is particularly revealing of Combs' personal life and feelings. Combs' letters to Gonzalo Segura include Combs' opinions of the activities of the Mattachine Society. The entire CORRESPONDENCE series is organized alphabetically by correspondent.

Although the collection contains references to Combs's extensive correspondence with William Carlos Williams, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Gary Snyder, Robert Duncan, Jonathan Williams and Kenneth Patchen, these letters are not included. It is likely that this correspondence was sold prior to UCSD's acquisition of the papers.

SERIES 2: NOTEBOOKS AND WORKING SHEETS

The second series, NOTEBOOKS AND WORKING SHEETS, contains jottings and drafts of poems in manuscript. The description - Working Sheets - was used by the poet himself, who used that title for all working drafts of his verse. The materials are arranged chronologically wherever possible. Undated working papers were placed in a separate folder.

SERIES 3: TYPESCRIPTS OF VERSE

The largest series, TYPESCRIPTS OF VERSE, is divided into three subseries: A) Published Books, B) Unpublished Books, and C) Miscellaneous Poems.

A) Published Books consists of typescript copies and revisions (some with annotations) of four of Combs' major works. These items are organized chronologically by book title. Materials from Saints Thomas' and Francis' cities songs o' Tram and Briefs: poems are not found in this collection.

B) The subseries Unpublished Books contains Combs' compilation of three large collections of poetry, along with lengthy Christmas cards containing verse. These works are arranged by title and date.

C) The final subseries in TYPESCRIPTS OF VERSE is Miscellaneous Poems. This includes a notebook of some of Combs's earliest poems, collected and arranged by the poet and entitled "Combs Poems: thru 1950." Also in this subseries is an extensive collection of miscellaneous typescripts of poems dating from 1951 to 1964 and arranged chronologically. Curiously, there are fewer typescripts for the years 1955 and 1956. This may be due to the fact that Combs was busy helping to found the Virgin Islands Museum during that time.

SERIES 4: AUTHOR'S COLLECTION OF SERIALS

AUTHOR'S COLLECTION OF SERIALS is the fourth series. Included are relatively obscure periodicals which contain published versions of Combs' writing, as well as reviews of Combs' work. These items are arranged alphabetically by serial title.

SERIES 5: WRITINGS OF OTHERS

WRITINGS OF OTHERS is composed of Combs' small collection of what appears to be his friends' and students' writings. It is arranged alphabetically by author.

SERIES 6: PHOTOGRAPHS

The final series, PHOTOGRAPHS, consists of both prints and negatives. Most of the images are snapshots of Combs' family and friends, along with many scenes from the Virgin Islands.

Container List

CORRESPONDENCE

Box: 1 Folder: 1
Miscellaneous correspondence, A-Z
Box: 1 Folder: 2
Allen, Donald, 1958 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 3
Allen, Luther, 1957 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 4
American Academy for the International Morality, Inc. (A.I.M.), 1963
Box: 1 Folder: 5
Anderson, Forrest, 1959 - 1960
Box: 1 Folder: 6
Auerhahn, Press, 1960 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 7
Baldwin, James, 1963
Box: 1 Folder: 8
Beye, Holly and David Ruff, 1959 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 9
Blom, Frans, 1955 - 1957
Box: 1 Folder: 10
Bryant, Byron, 1955 - 1957
Box: 1 Folder: 11
Cabral, Olga, ca. 1960
Box: 1 Folder: 12
Ching, Reverend D.S., 1956 - 1959
Box: 1 Folder: 13
Cholakis, Jo Ann, 1956 - 1959
Box: 1 Folder: 14
Chumbly, Harold, 1959 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 15
Clark, D. (Dolores Corinne), 1956 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 16
Combs, Elisha and LaFaye, 1954 - 1958
Box: 1 Folder: 17
Combs, Larry H. and family, 1957 - 1958
Box: 1 Folder: 18
Corretjer, Don Antonio, 1955 - 1956
Box: 1 Folder: 19
Crowe, Donald, 1959 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 20
Daniel, Albert E., 1953 - 1955
Box: 1 Folder: 21
DeJoel, Miriam (Koshland), 1951 - 1963
Box: 1 Folder: 22
Delattre, Henri, 1959
Box: 1 Folder: 23
Der Kreis/The Circle, 1957

See also CORRESPONDENCE - Allen Luther

Box: 1 Folder: 24
Dettman, Preston (Winston Book Service), 1958 - 1963
Box: 1 Folder: 25
Dickson, Pratt (a.k.a. Manfred Wise), 1959
Box: 1 Folder: 26
Donovan, Laurence, 1958 - 1959
Box: 1 Folder: 27
El Corno Emplumado, 1962 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 28
Everson, Ron, 1958 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 29
Fleischer, Justin, 1953 - 1955
Box: 1 Folder: 30
Folkways Record (Moe Asch), 1953 - 1954
Box: 1 Folder: 31
Ford, Kenneth, 1959 - 1964
Box: 1 Folder: 32
Genesis West, 1963
Box: 1 Folder: 33
Gidlow, Elsa, 1958 - 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 1
Harcourt, Brace and Company (Margaret Marshall), 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 2
Hart, Lawrence, 1951 - 1963
Box: 2 Folder: 3
Hedley, Leslie Woolf, 1959 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 4
Hodes, Ida, 1958 - 1962
Box: 2 Folder: 5
Instituto de Cultura Puertoriquena (Ricardo Alegria, director), 1955 - 1958
Box: 2 Folder: 6
Jerome, Jud, 1963 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 7
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 1957 - 1958
Box: 2 Folder: 8
Kwock, C.H
Box: 2 Folder: 9
Lee, Nanying and Kem, 1955 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 10
Liberation (Bayard Rustin, ed.), 1951
Box: 2 Folder: 11
Library of Congress, 1957 - 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 12
Mattachine Society, Inc. (Hal Call and Don Lucas, eds.), 1955 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 13
May, James Boyer, 1958 - 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 14
McGahey, Jeanne, 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 15
McHugh, Vincent, 1961
Box: 2 Folder: 16
McKenna, Rollie, 1961 - 1963
Box: 2 Folder: 17
McNail, Stanley, 1962
Box: 2 Folder: 18
Montreal Review (ed. Allen Geller), 1963 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 19
Moreno, Ralph R., 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 20
Nachshen, Brian, 1963 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 21
Nesmith, Robert I., 1953 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 22
New Gnu Press, 1962
Box: 2 Folder: 23
Nichols, Clinton, 1960
Box: 2 Folder: 24
Norman (full name unknown), 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 25
One, Inc. (One Magazine), 1954 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 26
Ostroff, Anthony, 1960
Box: 2 Folder: 27
Pagan, Bolivar, 1955 - 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 28
Poetry Center (San Francisco State College), 1959 - 1965
Box: 2 Folder: 29
Pomeroy, Ralph, 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 30
Priest, Alan, 1961 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 31
Radhakrishnan, S., 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 32
Ramlov, Preben, 1963 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 33
Redl, Harry and Anne, 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 34
Renaissance (John Bryan, ed.), 1962 - 1963
Box: 2 Folder: 35
Roman Books, Inc., 1963 - 1964
Box: 2 Folder: 36
Russell, Peter, 1952 - 1963
Box: 2 Folder: 37
San Francisco Review, 1958 - 1959
Box: 2 Folder: 38
Segura, Gonzalo (Tony), Jr., 1957 - 1958

See also CORRESPONDENCE - Mattachine Society

Box: 2 Folder: 39
Smith, Glanville, 1959 - 1963
Box: 3 Folder: 1
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1956 - 1957
Box: 3 Folder: 2
Stern, Gerd, 1957 - 1963
Box: 3 Folder: 3
Stiles, Knute, 1951 - 1961
Box: 3 Folder: 4
Stolen Paper Review (Jeff Berner, ed.), 1963 - 1964
Box: 3 Folder: 5
Trinidad and Tabago Tourist Board, 1957
Box: 3 Folder: 6
Tze-Chiang, Chao, 1960 - 1962
Box: 3 Folder: 7
Van Dam Rubber Co., Inc., 1953 - 1954
Box: 3 Folder: 8
Wallrich, Larry, 1963
Box: 3 Folder: 9
Webb, Jon (Loujon Press), 1964
Box: 3 Folder: 10
Weslayan University Press, 1961 - 1964
Box: 3 Folder: 11
Wilkenson, Henry, 1960
Box: 3 Folder: 12
Yde, Jeris (National Museum - Copenhagen), 1954 - 1957
Box: 3 Folder: 13
Unidentified correspondence

NOTEBOOK AND WORKING SHEETS

Box: 3 Folder: 14-15
Notebook of verse - Drafts of poems arranged and explicated by Combs, 1946 - 1950
Working sheets
Box: 3 Folder: 16
1951 - 1958
Box: 3 Folder: 17
Undated

TYPESCRIPTS OF VERSE

Published Books

Pilgrim's Terrace (1957)
Box: 3 Folder: 18
Working papers - Carbon copy of typescript with explanatory note, 1948 - 1950
Box: 3 Folder: 19
Author's early typescript version - Carbon copy, 1956
Box: 4 Folder: 1
Author's early typescript version - Typescript with annotations, 1957
Box: 4 Folder: 2
Author's proof pages, 1957

Typeset with annotations

Box: 4 Folder: 3-4
Book order form and advertising blurbs, 1957
Ceremonies in Mind: Artists, Boys, Cats, Lovers, Judges, Priests (1959)
Box: 4 Folder: 5
Selected draft of "polished versions of poems", ca. 1958
Box: 4 Folder: 6
Early working version, including explanatory notes and annotations, ca. 1958
Box: 4 Folder: 7
Author's early typescript version - Includes pencil drawings, 1958
Box: 4 Folder: 8
Draft with editor's annotations, typeset, 1959
Box: 4 Folder: 9
Extra signature pages, typeset, ca. 1959
Box: 4 Folder: 10
Bond copy with cover, 1959
Box: 4 Folder: 11-12
But Never Mind: Poems, Etc., 1946-1950 (1961) - Author's typescript versions, 1959

Carbon copy of typescript

St. Thomas/Poems (1965)
Box: 4 Folder: 13
Working papers from which final version prepared - Includes annotation, typescripts, carbon copies of typescripts, ca. 1963
Box: 4 Folder: 14
Early version - Includes some instructions by author, two carbon copies of typescript, undated
First re-edited version
Box: 4 Folder: 15-16
Carbon copies of typescript, 1965
Box: 5 Folder: 1
Carbon copies of typescript, 1965 - 1965
Box: 5 Folder: 2
Annoted version arranged by author, typescript and carbons, 1965
Box: 5 Oversize: MC-044-07
Galley proof pages - Author's and printer's copies with annotation, 1965
Box: 5 Folder: 3
Sketch for rami binding and sample cloths from R. Bruckman

Unpublished Poetry

Box: 5 Folder: 4
Poems of God - Author's typescript version with extra notes, ca. 1955
Box: 5 Folder: 5-7
Journey-Man's Vision - Author's early version with typesetting instructions, 1959 - 1959

Three carbon copies of typescript

Box: 5 Folder: 8
Ink - Author's early typescript version, ca. 1967
Christmas cards
Box: 5 Folder: 9
Includes selected poems - Hand-assembled, 1955
Box: 5 Folder: 10
"This year's up - roar for the next" - Hand-assembled, includes photograph, 1955
Box: 5 Folder: 11
"The Christmas Clutch" - Hand-assembled, includes photograph, 1957

Miscellaneous Poems

Box: 5 Folder: 12
Combs Poems: thru 1950 - Drafts of poems with photographs "pertinent to the poems," typescripts, manuscripts, 1945 - 1950
Miscellaneous typescripts
Box: 5 Folder: 13
1951
Box: 6 Folder: 1-9
1952 - 1958
Box: 7 Folder: 1-6
1958 - 1961
Box: 8 Folder: 1-5
1962 - 1964

AUTHOR'S COLLECTION OF SERIALS

Box: 8 Folder: 6
List of periodical publications by Combs - Chronological list complied by Combs, ca. 1963
Box: 8 Folder: 7
Between Worlds, no 3. 1962 - Contains five poems by Combs
Box: 9 Folder: 1
Bim, vol. 8-9, nos. 30-33 - Contain selected verse by Combs, 1960 - 1961
Box: 9 Folder: 2
Home Journal, no. 825, - Contains two poems for Mis' Wallace, 1956
Box: 9 Folder: 3
Liberation, vol II, nos. 6 and 10 - First contains Combs' "Dinosaur" poem, and the second has the corrected version of it, 1957 - 1958
Box: 9 Folder: 4
Mattachine Review - Contains supplemental insert with some of Combs' verse, 1959
Box: 9 Folder: 5
One: Homosexual Viewpoint - Contains love poem, sort of, 1959
Box: 9 Folder: 6
Poetry, vol. 96 no. 4 - Contains review of Ceremonies in Mind by R. Sward, 1960
Box: 9 Folder: 7
San Francisco Review, vol. 1 no. 2. - Contains "Pieces", 1959
Box: 9 Folder: 8
Sparrow, no. 13 - Contains review of Comb's Ceremonies in Mind by J. Weil, 1960
Box: 9 Folder: 9
Trace, no. 30 - Contains review written by Combs, 1959
Box: 9 Folder: 10
Virgin Islands Carnival Brochure - Includes article by Combs, 1959

WRITINGS OF OTHERS

Box: 9 Folder: 11
Barlow, R. H. Work submitted for Emily Chamberlain Cook Prize in Poetry, 1942
Box: 9 Folder: 12
Hoffman, John. Journey to the End - Copied from copy owned by Gerd Stern, ca. 1963
Box: 9 Folder: 13
Kostolefsky, Joesph. Home Again, Home Again
Box: 9 Folder: 14
Langston, Eve. The Puppy
Box: 9 Folder: 15
Molnav, Thomas. Leo Shestov - A Man Outraged by Reality
Box: 9 Folder: 16
Norris, Robert. Skulls and Sedan Chair
Box: 10 Folder: 1
Ryan, John Allen. Selected poems - Copied by Combs, 1950 - 1958
Box: 10 Folder: 2
Toesca, Maurice. Esperanza - Translated by Francis Carmody

PHOTOGRAPHS

Box: 10 Folder: 3
Tram Combs
Box: 10 Folder: 4
Family members
Box: 10 Folder: 5
Tram Combs Books Shop
Box: 10 Folder: 6
Friends of Combs
Box: 10 Folder: 7
Miscellaneous - Snapshots
Box: 10 Folder: 8
Photographic postcards