Data from: Orthographic and phonological preview benefits: Parafoveal processing in skilled and less-skilled deaf readers
The Data component contains the raw eye movement data from the experiment, and may also contain data processing scripts, processed data, interim files, and analysis scripts.
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- Cite This Work
Belanger, Nathalie N; Mayberry, Rachel I; Rayner, Keith (2016): Data from: Orthographic and phonological preview benefits: Parafoveal processing in skilled and less-skilled deaf readers. In Keith Rayner Eye Movements in Reading Data Collection. UC San Diego Library Digital Collections. http://doi.org/10.6075/J0B8562K
Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading.
Adults, deaf, bilingual
- Scope And Content
This package contains data and data processing information for a gaze-contingent invisible boundary paradigm experiment. The ASC and DA3 files contain data from two separate (published experiments). The items for this experiment are numbered 129-200 and the conditions are the following: Condition #2 (identical; board-board), Condition #3 (homophone; bored-board), Condition #4 (orthographically similar and phonologically dissimilar; beard-board), Condition #5 (unrelated; tight-board). Importantly, in this experiment, there was also a relative frequency manipulation where the preview word was of lower frequency than the target (LFHF) or vice-versa (HFLF). Items 129-164 are LFHF, and items 165-200 are HFLF. All items in Condition #1 belong to another experiment "Highdeaf_Predictability", also available in the repository. See description of the items for this later experiment in related data package. See the Guide (Related Resource link, below) for details on some of the different types of files and column definitions that are contained in the data collection. Direct any inquiry to email@example.com.
Subject characteristics: Skilled Hearing Readers (SKH) All DA1 files beginning with the letter "H" = hearing adults, native speakers of English, age 21-43 years (M = 29), mean reading level = 11th grade
Subject characteristics: Skilled Hearing Readers (SKH) All DA3 files beginning with the letter "H" = hearing adults, native speakers of English, age 21-43 years (M = 29), mean reading level = 11th grade
Skilled Deaf Readers (SKD) Main communication mode is American Sign Language, learned before 10 years old, age 20-45 years (M = 30), mean reading level = 10th grade
DA3 files for SKD - All DA3 files containing the following codes are for the SKD readers: D02, D03, D04, D05, D08, D09, D12, D13, D14, D15, D17, D18, D19, D21, D23, D25, D26, D31 (see list of .DA3 files in "ALLDA3.lst")
Less-Skilled Deaf Readers (LSKD) Main communication mode is American Sign Language, learned before 10 years old, age 20-45 years (M = 30), mean reading level = 6th grade
DA3 files for LSKD - All DA3 files containing the following codes are for the LSKD readers: D01, D06, D07, D10, D11, D16, D22, D24, D27, D28, D29, D30, D32, D33, D34, D35, D36, D37, D38, D39, D40, D41 (see list of .DA3 files in "ALLDA3.lst")
- Technical Details
Presentation software: EyeTrack_0_7_10h; Font: 14pt Courier New (11 horizontal pixels per character); Viewing distance: 60 cm; Screen resolution: 1024 X 768; Cut-off for short fixations: 80 ms; Cut-off for long fixations: 800 ms; Fixations within n characters merged: 1 character; Software used for data processing: TimDrop.pl, questions.pl, jhook5b.pl, EyeDry
- Related Publications
Belanger, N.N., Mayberry, R.I., & Rayner, K. (2013). Orthographic and phonological preview benefits: Parafoveal processing in skilled and less-skilled deaf readers. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2237-2252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.780085
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Research Data Curation Program, UC San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0175 (https://lib.ucsd.edu/rdcp)
- Funding Source
NIH HD26765, ARRA supplement, NSF Science of Learning Center SBE1041725, FQRSC (125964) Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. N. Belanger
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