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An annotated checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) of San Diego County, California

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An annotated checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) of San Diego County, California

About this collection


1 digital object.

Cite This Work

Hung, Keng-Lou James; Rightmyer, Molly G.; Wall, Michael; Berrian, Jim; Ascher, John S.; Yanega, Doug; Davids, Jessica A.; Holway, David A. (2015). An annotated checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) of San Diego County, California. UC San Diego Library Digital Collections.


The Mediterranean and desert regions of Southern California include some of the most diverse bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) in the world. Due to human development, large portions of Mediterranean scrub and desert ecosystems in Southern California have been destroyed or profoundly degraded. This trend of habitat destruction and degradation is expected to continue as population pressures continue to grow and as Earth’s climate changes. This ongoing inventory project seeks to document all the bee species that occur within the bounds of San Diego County. Our aim is to not only make this information available for conservation managers and scientists, but also to provide a foundation for future efforts to investigate how bee diversity is affected by anthropogenic climate change in San Diego.

Scope And Content

This is a list of all described (or confirmed undescribed) bee species currently known by the researchers to occur in San Diego County. Species records in this database are obtained from diverse sources such as museum collections, primary literature (such as original species descriptions and taxonomic revisions), multi-institutional databases (such as, citizen-science photography websites (such as, and recent surveys in the natural habitats of San Diego. This list will be updated as researchers continue to database primary literature and as new species are recorded via ongoing surveys.

We are still in the midst of working with curators and taxonomic experts to verify data sources and identifications for a number of the bee species in our list. Therefore, please be advised that this list does not represent a complete, error-free inventory of the bee species currently occurring in San Diego County. The database will be updated periodically with additions and/or corrections; please contact the lead author, K. James Hung (, prior to referencing the list.

Please use the latest version of the database, as older versions may contain errors.

Creation Date
  • July 2015 to August 2020
Date Issued
  • 2015

Photo Credit: Keng-Lou James Hung


Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant, National Science Foundation
Bloom-Hays Ecological Research Grant, Sea and Sage Audubon
Grant in Aid of Research, Anza-Borrego Desert Natural History Association
Educational Grant, California Native Plant Society
Mildred E. Mathias Graduate Student Research Grant
Young Explorers Grant, National Geographic Society
Jeanne Marie Messier Memorial Fund Award, UC San Diego
UC Academic Senate Bridge Fund Grant, UC San Diego

Scientific Names


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Related Resources

    Referenced by

    • Hung Keng-Lou James, Kingston Jennifer M., Lee Adrienne, Holway David A. and Kohn Joshua R. 2019. Non-native honey bees disproportionately dominate the most abundant floral resources in a biodiversity hotspotProc. R. Soc. B.286: 20182901.

    Other resource

    Collection image

    • Image source: Keng-Lou James Hung and Susan Chen.