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Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Float Data Archive

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Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Float Data Archive

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22 digital objects.

Cite This Work

Johnson, Kenneth S; Riser, Stephen C; Boss, Emmanuel S; Talley, Lynne D; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Swift, Dana D; Plant, Josh N; Maurer, Tanya L; Key, Robert M; Williams, Nancy L; Wanninkhof, Richard H; Dickson, Andrew G; Feely, Richard A; Russell, Joellen L (2017): Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Float Data Archive. UC San Diego Library Digital Collections.


To develop a new observing system for carbon, nutrients, and oxygen that will complement and expand on the existing observing system for heat and freshwater, the observations team will deploy a large array (~200) of profiling floats with biogeochemical sensors throughout the Southern Ocean. This robotic float observing system will be complemented by shipboard measurements, instrument and sensor development, and data analysis, including state estimation in conjunction with the modeling program.

Principal responsibility for development and deployment of the observing system will be in the hands of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Theme 1 Lead Lynne Talley), in partnership with the University of Washington (Co-Lead Steve Riser) and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (Associate Director Ken Johnson), who together will design and build the floats and participate in analysis of the data. Deployment opportunities with international partners are an important component to the SOCCOM observational program.

Date Collected
  • 27 March 2014 to present
Date Issued
  • 2017
Research Team Members

Calibration for BGC sensors follows methods described in:

Maurer, T.L., Plant, J.N. and K.S Johnson, 2021. Delayed-Mode Quality Control of Oxygen, Nitrate, and pH Data on SOCCOM Biogeochemical Profiling Floats. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:683207.

Johnson, K. S., J. N. Plant, L. J. Coletti, H. W. Jannasch, C. M. Sakamoto, S. C. Riser, D. D. Swift, N. L. Williams, E. Boss, N. Haentjens, L. D. Talley, and J. L. Sarmiento, 2017. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 6416-6436.

Three different methods (LIAR, CANYON, MLR) are used in calculating TALK, DIC, and pCO2. These are referenced below. For a description of uncertainties associated with the derived carbon parameters see Williams, N. L., et al. (2017), Calculating surface ocean pCO2 from biogeochemical Argo floats equipped with pH: An uncertainty analysis, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, 591–604,

Carter, B.R., Williams, N.L., Gray, A.R. and Feely, R.A. (2016), Locally interpolated alkalinity regression for global alkalinity estimation. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, 14: 268-277,

Carter, B.R., Feely, R.A., Williams, N.L., Dickson, A.G., Fong, M.B. and Takeshita, Y. (2018), Updated methods for global locally interpolated estimation of alkalinity, pH, and nitrate. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, 16: 119-131.

Sauzède R, Bittig HC, Claustre H, Pasqueron de Fommervault O, Gattuso J-P, Legendre L and Johnson KS (2017) Estimates of Water-Column Nutrient Concentrations and Carbonate System Parameters in the Global Ocean: A Novel Approach Based on Neural Networks. Front. Mar. Sci. 4:128.

Bittig HC, Steinhoff T, Claustre H, Fiedler B, Williams NL, Sauzède R, Körtzinger A and Gattuso J-P (2018) An Alternative to Static Climatologies: Robust Estimation of Open Ocean CO2 Variables and Nutrient Concentrations From T, S, and O2 Data Using Bayesian Neural Networks. Front. Mar. Sci. 5:328.

pH, Nitrate, DIC: Williams, N. L., Juranek, L. W., Johnson, K. S., Feely, R. A., Riser, S. C., Talley, L. D., Russell, J. L., Sarmiento, J. L., and Wanninkhof, R. ( 2016), Empirical algorithms to estimate water column pH in the Southern Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 3415– 3422,


Authors using SOCCOM float data should acknowledge that "Data were collected and made freely available by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Project funded by the National Science Foundation, Division of Polar Programs (NSF PLR-1425989), supplemented by NASA, and by the International Argo Program and the NOAA programs that contribute to it. The Argo Program is part of the Global Ocean Observing System (,". In addition, users should reference the appropriate SOCCOM DOI, as listed on each page under Cite This Work.

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