Lijphart Elections Archive
Germany: Formulaic Matrix
Germany Primary Districts Secondary Districts (Lander) Tertiary District (national)
Partisan Cartels -- -- (2) The total number of seats to which a cartel is entitled is determined on the basis of list votes (zweitstimmen) aggregated to the national level, using LR-Hare with a 5% national threshold.
Lists -- (1b) Votes cast for Land lists (zweitstimmen) can, at the option of each party, either be used for an allocation of seats within the Land by LR-Hare, or be pooled at the national level. In practice, all parties take the latter option. (3) Seats awarded to partisan cartels in step 2 are reallocated to each cartel's component Land lists by PR-d'Hondt.
Candidates (1a) Constituency seats are awarded by plurality rule on the basis of candidate votes (erststimmen). (4) Let the number of seats to which a Land list is entitled, determined in step 3, be denoted L. Let the number of constituency seats won by the party in that Land , determined in step 1a, be denoted C. If L-C > 0, then the first L-C names on the Land list, not having already won constituency seats, are awarded seats. If L-C <0, then no seats are allocated to candidates on the list, but the party does get to keep the surplus seats (uberhangmandaten) it has won. --
496-member Federal Diet (Bundestag).